2017年07月09日

ドナルド・トランプにおべっかを使っても評判を落とすだけだ。 これはシェークスピアの戯曲ではない。王様に立ち向かう代償はそのことに対しては小さすぎる。

Donald Trump’s need for flattery is trashing reputations
This is not Shakespearean drama: the penalty for characters who stand up to the king is too small for that 
Print edition | United States
Jun 17th 2017

ドナルド・トランプにおべっかを使っても評判を落とすだけだ。
これはシェークスピアの戯曲ではない。王様に立ち向かう代償はそのことに対しては小さすぎる。

flattery:お世辞
trashing:壊す
stand up to:人に恐れず立ち向かう



AS A rule, it is not ideal for a presidential administration to remind onlookers of a feuding, villain-haunted Shakespearean tragedy. Yet that was a widely shared reaction when the first full meeting of President Donald Trump’s cabinet, on June 12th, began with an extended flattery contest. 

onlookers:見物人
feuding:反目する
villain:悪党 
haunt:現れる

Vice-President Mike Pence set the tone, confiding that serving a president “who’s keeping his word to the American people” is “the greatest privilege of my life”. As Mr Trump clenched his jaw, nodded and threw in an occasional “good job” of encouragement, his cabinet secretaries—who include former governors, retired four-star generals and more than one billionaire—mostly followed suit. They variously reported that his presidency has “thrilled” crime-fighters, excited the world with its “international flair” and inspired “love” in Mississippi. “My hat is off to you!” swooned the energy secretary, Rick Perry, who in 2015 called Mr Trump a “cancer on conservatism”. 

set the tone:方向づける
confiding:打ち明ける
clenched:歯を食いしばる
encouragement:激励
suit:先例に倣う
thrilled:ワクワクした
crime-fighters:犯罪と戦う人・警察官
flair:才能
hat is off to:脱帽だ
swooned:夢中になる

For as long as cameras whirred this surge of praise rolled round the room like a bureaucrats’ Mexican wave, peaking with a testimonial from Reince Priebus, the White House chief of staff. Unabashed by speculation that he is to be sacked, Mr Priebus declared: “We thank you for the opportunity and the blessing to serve your agenda.” The verdict of a Twitter-user from Toronto, “This is actually the start of ‘King Lear’,” went viral, pinging around the political internet. 

whirred:ブーンと音を立てる
rolled round:周期的に起こる
Mexican wave:ウェーブ(⦅米⦆wave)〘観客が次々と立ち上がり波状に見える応援の方式; 1986年ワールドカップメキシコ大会が発祥〙
testimonial:表彰会
Unabashed:厚かましい・ものおじしない
speculation:憶測
verdict:意見
King Lear:リヤ王
go viral:急速に広まる
pinging:データを送信する

No secretary quite filled the role of Cordelia, the princess whose principled refusal to flatter King Lear in the opening scene of that tragedy (“I cannot heave/My heart into my mouth”) helps to precipitate her father’s descent into madness and the play’s plunge into eye-gouging, several murders and a small war. A few came close, notably James Mattis, the defence secretary and a thoughtful former four-star Marine general. Rather than fawn, Mr Mattis used his turn to praise troops and to express a core plank of his philosophy: that America maintains potent armed forces so that its diplomats “always negotiate from a position of strength”. 

principled:強い道徳信念を持った
heave:持ち上げる
precipitate:招く
descent:相続
eye-gouging:眼球をえぐり出す
fawn:へつらう
plank:ささえとなるもの
potent:強力な

Cordelia:年老いたリア王は、三人の娘に王国を譲り、まつりごとの煩わしさから解放されたいと考えていた。すでに領地は三分割し、どの娘にどの領地を分け与えるかも決めてあったが、覇権を譲ろうとしてもなお、最高の敬愛を受けたいとう老いの気まぐれと無分別から、三人の娘に愛情試験を課す。上のふたりは、父への愛を高らかに宣言する孝行娘の役をみごとに演じ、所定の領地を得た。しかし、末娘のコーデリアは、そんな姉たちの下心が見えすいているだけに、父への思いやりから、見てくれだけの孝行娘の役を演じることができなかった。

As Mr Trump basked in congratulations, then hailed himself as the most “active” and productive president since Franklin D. Roosevelt, it was understandable if some recalled Shakespeare’s tragedies. For those works often explore how sycophancy clouds the judgment of great men, especially when pride prevents them from seeing that they are being gulled. As he divides his kingdom between three daughters, Lear confuses flowery words with love. It is fawning that lures Julius Caesar to a fatal ambush in the Capitol, as a conspirator predicts: “But when I tell [Caesar] he hates flatterers,/He says he does, being then most flattered.” 

basked:浸る
sycophancy:おべっか
gulled:だます
confuses:混同する
fawning:へつらう
flattered:気分を良くして

どうもこの話はトランプが大統領になって、リヤ王みたいに、おべっかを使う人たちが取り巻いているようだ。そうしたことに彼は気を良くしている。リア王はそうしたおべっかを見抜けないで、悲劇となった。たしかに、ゴマすりを受ければ気分は良い。本当の実態をトランプは理解しているのだろうか。

In a further demonstration that Shakespeare’s works pack a political punch more than 400 years on, Mr Trump’s cabinet meeting was held on the very day that a production of “Julius Caesar” opened in New York at an outdoor theatre in Central Park, in which the Roman dictator is played by a blonde, Trump-like figure in a suit and red tie. That staging, including a graphic stabbing, prompted anger from conservative news outlets and from the president’s son, Donald Trump junior, who asked on Twitter: “I wonder how much of this ‘art’ is funded by taxpayers?” As some corporate sponsors withdrew support and the National Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency, denied having funded the play, its director argued that Shakespeare’s drama does not incite violence but in fact explores the terrible costs of trying to preserve a republic through undemocratic means. 

pack a political punch:政治的な強いパンチを打つことが出来る
blonde:金髪の男
stabbing:突き刺さるような
incite:誘発する
explores:探る

For all that, those drawing parallels between Shakespeare’s tragedies and the Trump administration need to be sure that they are comparing like with like. The present White House may be uncomfortably reminiscent of a medieval court, with its cliques and coerced displays of fealty, all taking place under the watchful gaze of a ruling family—as cabinet members cringed this week, an impassive Jared Kushner, Mr Trump’s son-in-law and senior counsellor, could be seen monitoring their tributes from a seat behind the president. 

parallels:類似点
like with like:似たものを比較する
reminiscent :思い出させる
medieval:中世の
cliques:派閥
fealty:忠誠
cringed:すくむ・へつらう
impassive:感情を示さない
tributes:賛辞・敬意

But Mr Trump is no King Lear, whose choleric old age was preceded by a long and fruitful reign. Nor is he a Julius Caesar, whose grandeur renders him incautious around flatterers: just before his assassins strike, Caesar sniffs that he is unmoved by their “base spaniel fawning”. Instead Mr Trump is a boastful, thin-skinned praise-addict. Lacking a governing record after squandering the start of his presidency, he used his first full cabinet meeting to stage a televised display of loyalty. He knew full well that the powerful men and women in the room were flattering him—and relished their humiliation. He is more bully than tragic hero. 

choleric:気難しい
preceded:先行する
grandeur:壮大さ
renders:にする・与える
incautious:不注意な
sniffs:嗅ぎつける
unmoved:不動で
spaniel:スパニエル犬
fawning:へつらうような
thin-skinned:すぐ怒る
praise-addict:賞賛されることに中毒になっている
squandering:無駄にする
televised:テレビ放送する
relished:楽しむ
humiliation:屈辱
bully:ガキ大将・弱い者いじめをするやつ

Robes and furr’d gowns hide all
Shakespeare understood bullies. The tragedies are filled with demagogues: orators with a genius for stirring up divisions and stoking grievances to turn decent citizens into angry, vengeful followers. During the election Mr Trump called rivals “disgusting” or said they “choked like a dog”. This week he called the news media both fake and “dirty” and said they pursue “their agenda of hate”. Shakespearean populists—men like the plotters in “Julius Caesar” or the crowd-pleasing tribunes in “Coriolanus”—also dehumanise opponents. They call their foes wolves, or an elitist “enemy to the people”, liable to pay commoners no more heed than dogs that are “beat for barking”. 

demagogues:煽動政治家
orators:雄弁家
stirring up:引き起こす
stoking:かき立てる
grievances:不満
decent:まともな
vengeful:執念深い
choked like a dog:犬のように息を出来ないようにする
plotters:陰謀者
crowd-pleasing:大衆受けする
tribunes:(古代ローマの)護民官〘平民の権利を守るために選挙された役人〙; 軍団司令官〘6人で2か月ずつ交替する〙
Coriolanus:コリオレーナス 《著》ウィリアム・シェークスピア(William Shakespeare)
dehumanise:の人間性を奪う 
foes:敵
liable:しがち
commoners:平民
heed:に注意を払う

The fact that Mr Trump is a smaller, shallower figure than most Shakespearean heroes (or villains, come to that) makes the craven behaviour of his cabinet secretaries and other Republican enablers even harder to explain. Unlike courtiers in a Jacobean tragedy, they risk neither execution nor banishment. No invading army or witches’ curse impels so many members of Team Trump to sell their reputations and dignity cheap: merely ambition, and the comforting fiction that they are indispensable. Serving Mr Trump is a modest test of character, by Shakespearean standards. It is one which too many underlings are failing.

villains:悪役
craven:臆病な
enablers:⦅非難して⦆イネイブラー 手助けするつもりでかえって相手のためにならないことをする人
courtiers:宮廷人
Jacobean:ジェイムズ(James)1世時代(1603—25)の
impels:強いて~させる
comforting:ホットさせる
indispensable:不可欠な
modest:控えめな
underlings:下っ端

シェークスピアの戯曲に出てくる悪役のようにトランプに多くの官僚とか彼の部下がゴマをすってくる。彼はそうしたことを自慢し、また、いい気分になっている。彼に反発することは出来ない。彼のこうした行為はシェークスピアの戯曲のように、悲劇に繋がっていくだろう。

月曜日。今日は朝会がある。午後には企業訪問がある。ではまた明日。

swingby_blog at 21:06コメント(0) 

2017年07月08日

ロシアは友好国が誰かを見つけている。 ロシア市民は友好国と敵国が何処かについて年間調査に答えている。

Stratfor 
Jun 6, 2017 | 20:30 GMT
Russia Finds Out Who Its Friends Are
Russia's citizens have responded to an annual poll, saying who they think their country's allies and enemies are.
(Alexander Aksakov/Getty Images)

ロシアは友好国が誰かを見つけている。
ロシア市民は友好国と敵国が何処かについて年間調査に答えている。

Who do Russians believe are their closest allies? Their enemies? A new survey by independent pollster the Levada Center attempts to answer these questions. The annual poll is traditionally a good reflection of Russia's geopolitical position as well as the Kremlin's messaging to its people. This year's results offer particular insight.

A Levada Center poll of Russians shows the top 5 nations they consider friendly to their country. 

Belarus, Russia's western neighbor, has long held the top friendly spot and does so again in the poll. This year, however, longtime second-place ally, Kazakhstan, was displaced by China. Clearly, Beijing's increasing economic, financial and political ties with Moscow are picking away at decades of mistrust of China by the Russian people. The positive outlook on Russia-Syria ties continues to rise as well. Since 2015, the Kremlin has maintained an extensive state propaganda campaign promoting Russia's patriotic duty to intervene militarily and politically in the war-torn country. It's made an impact. The United States and Ukraine rank highest among the top rivals of Russia, according to a poll of Russian citizens.

pickingaway:少しずつ引っ掻いて取る

On the other side of the spectrum, Russians continue to view the United States and Ukraine as the states most hostile to their country. The trend began in 2014 once the conflict in eastern Ukraine began and Western sanctions fell on Russia. Moscow has benefited from the public's strong negative views of Washington and Kiev, using this perception to rally popular support for the Kremlin during its difficult period. The Russian government would've likely faced even larger protests had it not been able to blame the United States and Ukraine for the country's poor economic conditions. Animosity toward Germany has also increased, jumping ahead of Turkey, which fell out of the top five this year after a break in relations in 2016.

spectrum:範囲
Animosity:敵意

Berlin's tough stance on Russian meddling in Europe and sanctions have deepened the divide between the countries. Typically, sour relations with Germany don't register among the Russian people. The severe drop in trade and an aggressive Kremlin information campaign portraying an assertive Germany, however, has seeped into the national consciousness. 

meddling:干渉する
register:認識する
assertive:しっかり自己主張をする
seeped:染み込む

ロシアの国民の友好国か敵国かの調査で、ウクライナと合わせて、アメリカが一番嫌われている。ドイツも同様のようだ。トルコは改善されてきている。友好国としてはベラルーシが一番のようだ。中国も良くなってきている。一時、トランプがロシアに接近していたが、だんだんその認識を変えてきているようだ。


日曜日。ではまた明日。

swingby_blog at 22:22コメント(0) 

2017年07月07日

ICT企業がジハーディストをもっと押さえ込むことが出来るだろう。 しかし、そのためには法規制を考慮して、しっかり考える必要がある。

Tech firms could do more to help stop the jihadists
But legal restrictions must be proportionate and thought through
Jun 10th 2017

ICT企業がジハーディストをもっと押さえ込むことが出来るだろう。
しかし、そのためには法規制を考慮して、しっかり考える必要がある。

proportionate:釣り合った
thought :考え抜く



THREE jihadist attacks in Britain in as many months have led to a flood of suggestions about how to fight terrorism, from more police and harsher jail sentences to new legal powers. But one idea has gained momentum in both Europe and America—that internet firms are doing the jihadists’ work for them. Technology giants, such as Google and Facebook, are accused of turning a blind eye to violent online propaganda and other platforms of allowing terrorists to communicate with each other out of reach of the intelligence services. 

in as many months:それと同数の月数に 三ヶ月間に三回
momentum:勢いを増す
turning a blind eye:見て見ぬふりをする

It is only the latest such charge. The technology firms have also been condemned for allowing the spread of fake news and harbouring bullies, bigots and trolls in the pursuit of profit. In the past they were accused of enabling people to evade copyright and of hosting child pornography. 

harbouring:に隠れ場所を与える
bullies:弱い者いじめをするやつ
bigots:政治に固定観念を持つわからずや
trolls:人を騙すような嫌な奴
evade:逃れる

In all these areas, politicians are demanding that the technology giants take more responsibility for what appears on their networks. Within limits, they are right. 

Shooting the messenger app?
For as long as there have been data networks, people have exploited them to cause harm. The French mechanical telegraph system was subverted in 1834 in a bond-trading scam that went undetected for two years. Cold-callers run cons by telephone. The internet, with billions of users and unlimited processing power, is the most powerful network of all. It was bound to become the focus of wrongdoers. 

exploited:不当に利用する
subverted:壊す
scam:ぺてん
undetected:見破らずに
Cold-caller:勧誘電話をする人
cons:信用詐欺
focus:関心の的となる

That does not mean it should be wrapped in red tape. Openness online is especially valuable because it allows “permissionless” innovation. Anyone can publish an article, upload a video or distribute a piece of software to a global audience. Freedom from the responsibilities that burden other media companies has served as a boost for a nascent industry. 

wrapped in red tape:政府が介入する
nascent:芽生えつつある

But the days when the technology firms needed nurturing are long gone. In the past decade they have become the world’s most valuable companies. As their services have reached deeper into every aspect of everyday life, online activity has gained more potential to cause offline harm. For every Spotify there is a WannaCry.

WannaCry:2017年5月頃から顕著に活動が見られるようになったマルウェアの呼び名である。

Technology firms complain that this combination of novelty and commercial success makes them a convenient target for politicians, some of whom seem to regard regulating the internet as a shortcut to solving complex social problems such as hate speech. Eager to protect their special status, technology firms have emphasised that online recruitment is only part of the terrorist threat. Besides, they say, they are platforms, not publishers, and that they cannot possibly monitor everything. 

Yet the firms can act when they want to. Before Edward Snowden exposed them in a huge leak in 2013, they quietly helped American and British intelligence monitor jihadists. Whenever advertisers withdraw business after their brands ended up alongside pornographic, violent or extremist material, they respond remarkably quickly. 

alongside:並んで

As with car accidents or cyber-attacks, perfect security is unattainable. But an approach based on “defence in depth”, combining technology, policy, education and human oversight, can minimise risk and harm. Often, commercial self-interest gives an incentive for the technology companies to act. Although fake news is popular and engaging, and provides opportunities to fill advertising slots, it is bad for the technology giants’ reputations. Accordingly, Google and Facebook are doing more to cut off fake-news sites from their advertising networks, build new tools to flag dubious stories and warn readers of them, and establish links with fact-checking organisations. 

dubious:疑わしいと思う

When self-interest is not enough, governments can prod the firms to tighten up—as German lawmakers have, threatening huge fines. Under a voluntary agreement with European regulators, the big firms have set a target of reviewing (and, when appropriate, removing) within a day at least 50% of content flagged by users as hateful or xenophobic. The latest figures show that Facebook reviewed 58% of flagged items within a day, up from 50% in December. For Twitter, the figure was 39%, up from 24%. (YouTube’s score fell from 61% to 43%.) 

prod:せかす

The strongest measure is new laws. In 2002, for example, Britain made internet service providers (ISPs) liable for child pornography if they did not take it down “expeditiously”. The ISPs used a charity to compile a list of blocked URLs that it updated twice daily. The charity works closely with law-enforcement agencies in Britain and abroad. Similarly, American lawmakers have clamped down on copyright infringement. 

liable:しがち・責任がある
expeditiously:迅速に
charity:慈善団体

It’s no longer 2005
As in the offline world, legislators must strike a balance between security and liberty. Especially after attacks, when governments want to be seen to act, they may be tempted to impose blanket bans on speech. Instead, they should set out to be clear and narrow about what is illegal—which will also help platforms deal with posts quickly and consistently. Even then, the threshold between free speech and incitement will be hard to define. The aim should be to translate offline legal norms into the cyber domain. 

incitement:扇動

Before legislators rush in, they also need to think about unintended consequences. If internet firms are threatened with fines, they may simply remove all flagged content, just in case. Regulation that requires lots of staff to take down offensive posts will most hurt small startups, which can least afford it. Laws mandating cryptographic “back doors” in popular messaging apps would weaken security for innocent users. Bad actors would switch to unregulated alternatives in countries that are unlikely to help Western governments. They would thus become harder for the intelligence services to watch. 

cryptographic:暗号解読法の

In the past, internet firms have tended to “build it first, figure out the rules later”. However, the arguments about terrorism and extremist content are a stark reminder that the lawless, freewheeling era of the early internet is over. Technology firms may find that difficult to accept. But accept it they must, as part of the responsibility that comes with their new-found power and as part of the price of their success. 

content:中身
stark:全くの・厳しい
reminder:思い起こされるもの

インターネットがテロの温床になっている。政府が規制するべきではないが、ネットの企業がもっと自主的にそうしたテロ活動に対して注力するべきだ。問題はあまりに注力するとそうでない情報も削除されてしまう。インターネットは規制されるべきではないが、それなりのルールをもって管理されるべきだろう。テロ活動の基盤を与えてはならない。

この議論は難しい問題がある。報道の自由とか発言の自由と一方で、ヘイトスピーチとか国家機密の情報の流布の制限がある。どこまで、その自由を認め、何処で制限するのかは極めて難しい。トランプの発言がいい例で、報道を規制しようとしている。それは間違いだ。

土曜日。今日は海野塾がある。ではまた明日。

swingby_blog at 21:16コメント(0) 

2017年07月06日

アメリカはもはや湾岸諸国を安定させる力はない。 カタールをブラックリストに載せたのはトランプ大統領の新たな世界秩序の崩壊の印だ。

America is no longer a force for stability in the Gulf
The blacklisting of Qatar is a sign of President Trump’s new world disorder
Jun 10th 2017

アメリカはもはや湾岸諸国を安定させる力はない。
カタールをブラックリストに載せたのはトランプ大統領の新たな世界秩序の崩壊の印だ。




AMERICA’S president got on so well last month with King Salman of Saudi Arabia that he has embraced the monarch’s foreign-policy goals. Sunni Saudi Arabia detests Shia Iran, its chief regional rival. So does Donald Trump. He also appears to share the Saudi view that the most egregious bankroller of terrorism in the Middle East is the tiny sheikhdom of Qatar. He applauded when, on June 5th, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates severed diplomatic ties with Qatar, as well as land, sea and air links. The Gulf states gave Qatari citizens 14 days to leave. Ludicrously, the UAE declared that anyone publishing expressions of support for Qatar can be jailed for up to 15 years. Mr Trump tweeted: “Perhaps this will be the beginning of the end to the horror of terrorism!” 

embraced :受け入れる
detests:嫌悪する
egregious:とんでもない
bankroller:資金援助者
sheikhdom:首長国
severed:関係を断つ

Though tiny, Qatar matters. It is the world’s largest producer of liquefied natural gas and an airline hub. It is also host to Al Jazeera, the nearest the Middle East has to an uncensored broadcaster (so long as it does not criticise the Qatari monarchy). It has good ties with Iran, with which it exploits a vast gasfield. It is supportive, too, of the (Sunni) Muslim Brotherhood, the most popular face of political Islam. All this makes Saudi Arabia hate it. The Saudi regime has tried in the past to bend Qatar to its will, but failed. Qatar hosts a large American airbase, which until now has made it feel safe. But with Mr Trump in the White House, nobody is now so sure. 

matters:需要である
exploits:開発する
bend to its will:屈服させる

No concrete reasons have been given for the blacklisting of Qatar. There is lots of chatter that wealthy Qataris fund terrorism. This accusation, which is also levelled at rich Saudis, is unproven, though the Financial Times reports that Qatar paid $1bn to Iran and an al-Qaeda affiliate for the release of Qatari royals who were taken hostage while on a falcon-hunting trip to Iraq. A billion-dollar ransom would buy a lot of explosives.

chatter:早口で喋る
levelled:非難を向ける
falcon:はやぶさ

The spat has split the Gulf Co-operation Council, hitherto a force for stability in an unstable region. It may drive Qatar, as well as Kuwait and Oman, the other two members of the GCC, who pointedly declined to support the Saudi move, further into the arms of Iran. Tempers may eventually cool, but some observers worry that the price of Saudi Arabia backing down will be the muzzling of those pesky Al Jazeera journalists. 

spat:口論
hitherto:今まで
pointedly:あからさまに
Tempers:機嫌
eventually:最後には
muzzling :言論を抑圧する
pesky:うるさい

Mr Trump’s support for Saudi actions also damages America’s credibility. It suggests that, under him, the superpower can abandon its allies after a brief chat with their enemies. “During my recent trip to the Middle East I stated that there can no longer be funding of Radical Ideology. Leaders pointed to Qatar—look!” tweeted Mr Trump on June 6th. The sober foreign-policy types who cling on in his administration are scrambling to downplay such undiplomatic words and calm tempers. Perhaps recognising his error, Mr Trump offered his services as a mediator the following day. 

sober:真面目な
scrambling:先を争う
downplay:過小評価する

Now anything goes
Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi, Egypt’s autocratic president, has also decided that Mr Trump is an American leader who will let him persecute his enemies without hindrance. On May 23rd, two days after the two men met and praised each other in Riyadh, Mr Sisi had a potential opponent arrested for allegedly making an indecent hand gesture at a rally five months earlier. On May 25th the government blocked access to the websites of Mada Masr, Egypt’s leading liberal newspaper, and those of 20 other media outlets, including Al Jazeera and Huffpost Arabic. In Bahrain the authorities killed five people and arrested 286 more in a raid on the home of a Shia cleric; shortly after that, they dissolved the main secular opposition party. America would once have objected to all this. No longer—and that is a recipe for a less stable Middle East.

persecute:迫害される
hindrance:障害
indecent:大袈裟な
dissolved:解体させる
recipe:原因

これもトランプを批判した記事だ。カタールをアラブ諸国から断絶させたのか彼のせいだ。カタールがイランに近づいてしまう。エジプトのシシに対しても好意を寄せている。もちろんサウジにもだ。そして、イランと敵対しようとしている。その結果、湾岸諸国のバランスは崩れてしまうだろう。ISILが消滅しても、中東は不安定のままだろう。5日にトランプはプーチンと合うのだろうが、何を話すのだろうか。

金曜日。今日はいつもの昼食会がある。その後CT検査。後は歯医者。ではまた明日。

swingby_blog at 22:03コメント(0) 

2017年07月05日

大企業はクリーンエネルギーが有望だと考えている。 アメリカの企業はドナルド・トランプのパリ協定からの撤退を埋め合わせることが出来る。

Big business sees the promise of clean energy
American firms can offset Donald Trump’s pullout from Paris
Jun 10th 2017

大企業はクリーンエネルギーが有望だと考えている。
アメリカの企業はドナルド・トランプのパリ協定からの撤退を埋め合わせることが出来る。



PITY America’s big businesses. For years their efforts to reduce their carbon footprint were dismissed by environmentalists as “greenwashing”. Now, after months trying to persuade a supposedly pro-business new president, Donald Trump, of the merits of staying in the Paris climate accord, he practically laughed in their faces by withdrawing on June 1st. 

PITY:気の毒に思う
footprint:二酸化炭素排出量
dismissed:否定する
greenwashing: 〔企業・組織による〕偽善的な環境への配慮、環境保護に取り組んでいると世間に思わせるために偽りの情報を流布すること
supposedly:一応
practically:現実的に
laughed in their faces:面と向かって馬鹿にする 

Executives fear the exit will do no good to America’s—and by implication their—reputation. Not for nothing have more than 900 American firms and investors, including Amazon, Twitter, Target and Nike, put their names this week to a “We are still in” open letter to the UN. Its signatories pledge to help reduce the country’s carbon emissions by 26% by 2025, in keeping with America’s Paris pledge. That may be quixotic but is a rallying cry nonetheless. 

Not for nothing:だてに〜しているわけではない 
open letter to:公開書簡
quixotic:現実離れした 
rallying cry:スローガン
nonetheless:それでもやはり

Indeed, some American firms are taking climate change so seriously that they are surprising even former critics. Alongside energy-efficiency measures, the strongest evidence of their commitment is the number of new wind and solar projects that they are helping to build around the world. Companies are using power-purchase agreements (PPAs), in which they sign long-term contracts to buy clean electricity from firms that develop solar and wind farms at agreed prices, instead of buying the bulk of their power from utilities, which can rarely guarantee 100% clean energy to their customers. 

critics:批判する人
power-purchase agreement:売電契約

Utilities do sign clean-energy PPAs as well. But in 2015, more than half the country’s wind-energy PPAs went to big companies hoping to take advantage of a federal tax credit before it was due to expire. Big business has by now spurred the worldwide development of a cumulative 20 gigawatts (GW) of wind and solar farms (see chart on left). That is four GW more than the entire onshore and offshore wind capacity of Britain. 

spurred:拍車をかける



Last year it was American IT firms such as Amazon and Google that led the way. They use clean energy to power their vast banks of servers (see chart on right). More recently, enthusiasm is extending beyond tech firms to energy-intensive industries, including manufacturers. It is also moving from corporate headquarters to subsidiaries and suppliers, and from developed countries to emerging markets, where the costs of wind and solar energy are falling fastest. Some environmentalists now see businesses as allies, rather than adversaries, in the fight against global warming, and believe they could become strong forces behind the worldwide spread of clean energy. “There used to be rhetoric and little action,” says Marty Spitzer, head of climate and renewable-energy policy in America for the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), a charity. “Now I see fundamental changes.” 

lead the way:先に立って道案内する
banks:貯蔵庫

Take Anheuser-Busch InBev, for example. The world’s biggest brewer, with brands ranging from Budweiser to Stella Artois to Corona, has a fair share of millennials among its tipplers, and many take environmental issues seriously. Electricity—used as part of the brewing process, for refrigeration, and so on—amounts to up to a tenth of its costs, says Tony Milikin, the firm’s chief sustainability officer. In March it set out to increase the role of renewables in generating power from 7% to 100% by 2025; as much as 85% will come via PPAs. “My generation, as a baby-boomer, looks at clean air and energy as infinite commodities. The generation coming up looks at it totally differently,” he says. 

millennials:1980年代から2000年代初頭(2000年前後)に生まれた世代のことを"Millennial Generation"(ミレニアル世代)、あるいは"Millennials"(ミレニアルズ)と呼ぶ場合がある
tipplers:大酒飲み
infinite:無限の
commodities:商品

Iberdrola, one of the world’s greenest utilities (see article), is building a 220-megawatt wind farm in a blustery part of Mexico to supply AB InBev’s largest brewery with clean electricity from 2019. That will add a hefty 5% to Mexico’s renewable-energy capacity. The brewer expects other PPAs to follow in Argentina, Brazil, India, South Africa—and possibly China. Mr Milikin says the firm will “heavily negotiate” with its suppliers, such as those producing its aluminium cans and bottles, to encourage them to do likewise. Other companies are even tougher. Walmart, the world’s largest retailer, in March said it would require its own operations and those along its supply chain to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions by 1bn tonnes (it calls this “Project Gigaton”) by 2030—the equivalent of taking 211m passenger cars off America’s roads for a year. 

blustery:風の強い
hefty:莫大な
tougher:簡単にへこたれない

The announcement was welcomed by charities such as the WWF, which are helping Walmart’s suppliers work towards the goal. Apple, maker of the iPhone, said in April that seven of its big global manufacturers have promised to power their Apple-related production with renewable energy by the end of next year. It is helping its suppliers improve energy efficiency, but also hopes to have brought 4GW of renewable power online by 2020, half of it in China. 

Some multinationals are clubbing together to do deals. For instance, AkzoNobel, DSM and Philips, a trio of Dutch firms, have teamed up with Google to buy electricity generated from a co-operative-owned wind park in the Netherlands. 

clubbing:費用を分担する

The buzz is spreading beyond the corporate stratosphere. Enel Green Power, one of the biggest sellers of PPAs, is close to developing wind energy in Morocco for local cement factories, steel firms and chemical companies, says Antonio Cammisecra, its boss. It will also build a clean-energy plant for a gold-mining project in South Africa. In Britain a startup, Squeaky Clean Energy, is hooking up small and medium-sized businesses with wind and solar farms in what it calls “peer-to-peer electricity”. 

buzz:活気
stratosphere:最高階級
startup:新会社
hooking:手を組む

Herve Touati of the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), a clean-energy research outfit, believes the biggest incentive for businesses to do PPAs is to meet sustainability goals, which improve their public image and help attract customers, staff and investors. According to the WWF, almost two dozen of America’s biggest firms have committed to becoming 100% renewable in the near future. Consumer-staples firms make the greenest promises. Fossil-fuel producers are, predictably, the laggards. 

Consumer-staples:生活必需品
predictably:予想通りに
laggards:遅れを取った活気のない組織

Economics is also a draw. In America the cost of procuring wind energy directly is almost as cheap as contracting to build a combined-cycle gas power plant, especially when subsidies are included, Mr Touati says. In developing countries, such as India and parts of Latin America and the Middle East, unsubsidised prices at solar and wind auctions have fallen to record lows. 

draw:引き分け

Yet there are also complications with PPAs, which explain why their growth has been more fickle of late. The most straightforward are for renewable plants on a company’s own property, because that saves the cost of grid-based transmission and distribution. But it is rare for a firm to have sufficient spare land in a suitably sunny or windy area. 

complications:状況を複雑にする問題
fickle:不安定な
grid-based:送電網

More complex, and most common, are remote or virtual PPAs, in which a company agrees to buy an amount of wind or solar energy from a distant developer, which feeds it into the grid. The company receives an equivalent amount of energy from a utility, which gets paid as a middleman. Such bespoke transactions can require a bevy of lawyers, which can put off smaller firms. 

bespoke :注文作りの
bevy:集団
put off:追い払う

The long-term nature of such PPAs is also a hindrance, because they lock in a price that can be costly if power prices do fall. Other options include buying renewable-energy certificates as evidence of clean-energy use, or entering into a green contract with a utility. These may not bring the same environmental kudos, however, because they might not lead to new wind and solar farms being built. 

hindrance:障害
kudos:栄誉

On the bright side, says Simon Currie of Norton Rose Fulbright, a law firm, non-profits such as the WWF and RMI are promoting “buyers clubs” that help bring firms together and standardise PPA contracts. They also press for regulatory reform in places such as China and some parts of America, where incumbent utilities block PPAs because they fear being disintermediated. 

disintermediated:中抜する

At a conference in Beijing on June 7th, the International Renewable Energy Agency, a global body, launched a survey of firms to find out how better to promote corporate PPAs in such places. At the same event, Google spoke of the regulatory hurdles it faces in expanding beyond the five countries where it has bought 2.6GW of PPAs since 2010. This month a pro-Republican alliance of big businesses will even press for carbon taxes and other clean-energy measures. With such powerful backing, the growth of renewable energy may one day win over even Mr Trump. 

press:強く求める

この記事はトランプのパリ協定脱退に対しての反対の意見で、大企業が太陽光や風力発電の再生可能エネルギーにたいして積極的に動いているということを言っている。 その通りで、トランプが炭鉱労働者を救済するために、パリ協定から脱退することはナンセンスだ。ここでは再生可能エネルギーの助成金が今後共続くことを疑っていないが、トランプが何をするかわからない。結構この助成金の継続は続かないかもしれない。

木曜日。ではまた明日。

swingby_blog at 23:23コメント(0) 

2017年07月04日

中東の石油に対する本当の脅威

Jun 8, 2017 | 14:26 GMT
Understanding the Real Threat to Oil Production in the Middle East

中東の石油に対する本当の脅威

The last three weeks have brought the world's biggest oil-producing region back into the headlines. From a crisis in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) to the political aftermath of a terrorist attack in Tehran, recent developments have renewed concerns that turmoil in the Middle East could cause havoc in the international oil market. Despite the heightened commotion, however, these concerns are misplaced. More than regional tension, the Islamic State's activity in southern Iraq — and perhaps southern Iran — presents a serious threat to energy production. 

havoc:大損害
commotion:騒動
misplaced:見当違いの

Testing the OPEC Deal
The falling out between Qatar and its fellow members of the GCC is unlikely to derail the production cuts that OPEC recently extended in an effort to curb oversupply and rebalance the market. Tension is running high between Iran and the GCC, as well as among the bloc's members, but oil producers on both sides of the Persian Gulf have long been willing to lay aside their differences in the interest of managing energy markets. As Riyadh tries to persuade the U.S. administration to coerce Qatar into following the Saudi regional agenda, it is no less focused on steadying the oil market to keep its economic reforms on track and preserve domestic stability. 

derail:失敗させる
lay aside:一時的に中止する
no less:それでもなお

The GCC's current campaign to isolate Qatar poses a greater threat to the country's economy than the fallout of its 2014 spat with the bloc did. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have led the charge to sever trade and travel ties with Doha while enacting aggressive measures such as a policy barring Qatari vessels from using Saudi or Emirati ports. In addition, Qatar, the world's largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) producer, will have to adapt its strategy now that its state-owned natural gas carriers are banned from using bunkering locations in Saudi Arabia or the United Arab Emirates. Meanwhile, because Qatari crude is often loaded onto ships alongside oil produced elsewhere in the Gulf, oil traders will have to get creative in how they ship Qatari crude to consumer markets. 

fallout :後遺症
spat:口論・喧嘩
sever:切断する
bunkering:燃料を補給する

Some of their options include using smaller vessels to ship oil directly to destination markets, using smaller vessels to stock larger ones via ship-to-ship transfers, or co-loading with other Gulf producers such as Oman and Kuwait. Ultimately the bans will not take Qatari crude and LNG completely off the market, but they will hike up shipping costs. Egypt, for its part, has refrained from closing the Suez Canal or Sumed pipeline to Qatari crude and LNG, probably because the move would interfere with its contractual obligations to shipping companies. 

refrained:慎む

At the same time, Qatar is actively trying to defuse the crisis with its neighbors, rather than inflaming it further by, for instance, withdrawing from the OPEC production deal. (Besides, since the country contributes only about 30,000 barrels per day to the cut, pulling out of the agreement wouldn't have a dramatic effect.) The extent to which Doha resists Saudi and Emirati pressure to change its ways will depend on how secure it feels in its security relationship with the United States. Though U.S. President Donald Trump has expressed staunch support for Riyadh and Abu Dhabi's agenda against Doha, U.S. military and diplomatic officials have offered Qatar ample reassurances. Trump, moreover, has since phoned the Qatari emir and called for unity among the GCC's members. 

defuse:和らげる
inflaming:悪化させる
staunch:熱烈に
ample:十分すぎるほどの
reassurances:安心

The Aftershocks of an Attack
The terrorist attacks that shook Tehran on June 7 also raised concerns about the oil market. Since the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) insinuated that Saudi Arabia and the United States were tied to the incidents, questions have swirled over whether Iran's response would destabilize the oil market. The statements served a political purpose. The IRGC has been worried that Iranian President Hassan Rouhani's recent re-election would empower him to neutralize its economic and security clout. In the wake of the attacks, the IRGC will use the security threats facing the country to justify expanding its covert activities abroad against Saudi Arabia, the United States and their allies. 

Aftershocks:余波
insinuated:であるとほのめかす
swirled:渦巻きを起こす
covert :密かな

But the chances of a conventional military conflict that could restrict commercial traffic in the Strait of Hormuz are slim. The same considerations that stayed Iran's hand when it was under the threat of military attack for its nuclear program will factor into its calculations over the costs of triggering a conflict today. The IRGC could increase its naval activities in the Strait of Hormuz to harass the United States' vessels and those of its allies. Tehran will take care, however, to avoid a scenario in which Washington increases its sanctions on Iran or jeopardizes its economic recovery. 

slim:可能性が少ない
harass:悩ます

A Greater Danger
Instead, as tensions between Iran and Saudi Arabia mount, their proxy wars will likely intensify. These conflicts pose little risk to energy supplies. The Shiite dissidents Tehran supports in Saudi Arabia's oil-rich Eastern Province, for instance, have yet to prove themselves capable of an attack on energy infrastructure that would take Saudi oil production offline. Their activities have so far focused on security checkpoints and soft targets. Iran, meanwhile, will be on heightened alert for evidence of external meddling on its borders, especially in the dissident areas of Iranian Kurdistan, Sistan-Baluchistan and Ahvaz. Ahvaz, home to a large concentration of Arab dissidents, is the capital of Khuzestan province, where the vast majority of Iran's oil is produced. But the region's separatist movement is a manageable threat, and Sunni powers such as Saudi Arabia haven't had much success trying to turn their local proxies into a formidable enemy of the Iranian state. 

formidable:手強い

The threat of jihadist terrorism, on the other hand, may be a different story. Iran has now suffered a spectacular attack at the Islamic State's hand, and the extremist group presents a threat to oil production in the country and beyond. Iraq's oil infrastructure is particularly vulnerable. As the Islamic State comes under greater pressure in Iraq and Syria, it will divert its energy and resources from holding territory to coordinating terrorist activities. The group has focused its most significant attacks in Iraq on the country's capital and predominantly Shiite areas. But on May 19, the Islamic State claimed responsibility for an attack on two checkpoints near the oil fields in Basra. If the group were to target onshore oil and natural gas infrastructure in southern Iraq — a region that produces most of Iraq's oil and exports 3.2 million bpd — it could disrupt energy markets worldwide. 

divert:転換する
predominantly:主に


サウジがカタールと断行したが、それ以上に、中東には大きな不安が広がっている。一つはサウジとイランとの代理戦争の拡大である。もう一つはISILのテロ活動が今後どうなるかだ。2017年6月7日イランの首都テヘランにある国会議事堂とホメイニー廟がほぼ同時に襲撃され、12人が死亡、約40人が負傷した。これはおそらく、1979年のイラン・イスラム革命以後最悪の、つまりイラン建国以来最悪のテロ事件だ。こうした事件が今後、更に、石油基地に攻撃が移っていくと大変なことになりそうだ。

水曜日。今日は海野塾がある。ではまた明日。


swingby_blog at 21:03コメント(0) 
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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

スウィングバイ株式会社
代表取締役社長

アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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海野塾のイベントはFacebookのTeamSwingbyを参照ください。 またスウィングバイは以下のところに引っ越しました。 スウィングバイ株式会社 〒108-0023 東京都港区芝浦4丁目2−22東京ベイビュウ803号 Tel: 080-9558-4352 Fax: 03-3452-6690 E-mail: clyde.unno@swingby.jp Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/clyde.unno 海野塾: https://www.facebook.com TeamSwingby
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