Potential Problems Areas in Cross Cultural Teams:

A) Communication, Language and Expression
The quality of communication is a key concern in cross cultural teams. Everybody could be speaking English, but certain forms of slang or colloquialisms may not be clearly understood leading to misinterpretations. Teamwork is a collective effort and all the players have to fully understand the direction that the discussion is taking. Misinterpretations can be kept to a minimum if everybody aims for clarity, otherwise team effectiveness is bound to suffer. To prevent problems associated with miscommunication, team members have to be encouraged check with each other for clarity either through paraphrasing or by asking questions. Paraphrasing basically involves restating a point and then asking - "Is that what you meant?"

A) コミュニケーション、言語と表現

Communication problems are particularly significant in cross cultural ‘virtual’ teams. Here are an example of two kinds of virtual teams:
 1. The international virtual team that typically interacts across continents and countries, to collaborate on a common task. This is almost always a cross cultural team.
  2. Virtual teams within the same country or city when a part of the team opts for telecommuting – they use email and other forms of telecommunication technologies to coordinate work.

1. 通常は大陸と国家をまたがって交流し、共通の課題を協力する国際的な仮想チーム。これは殆どいつも異文化チームだ。
2. 同じ国家もしくは都市での仮想チームで、このチームの一部が遠隔通信技術を利用している。ー 彼らは仕事を連携させる為にe-mailとか遠隔通信技術の他の形態を利用する。

Both types of teams will work on a project without regular face-to-face interaction, and therefore have to make their written email communication and telephone conversations as clear as possible. They also have to develop a work ethic of prompt response to queries, if this is not forthcoming it can be a little unnerving and there is no chance of you dropping by the office of your team colleague to discuss the issue.


In the international virtual team with its cross cultural mix of people, it should be expected that some amount of ambiguity is bound to creep in. Care has to be taken with wordings especially when there is disagreement on an issue. Even mildly sarcastic comments meant as a joke can be misinterpreted by a team member in another country and cause a conflict.


Information gaps are another problem area for the virtual cross cultural team. Everybody has to be on the same wave length as far as information and data goes. These teams can greatly benefit from ‘Groupware’ software, a relatively recent concept in networking using multi-user technology. This kind of software allows access to a shared database, provides email services, allows sharing of work files, allows online chats, scheduling, and tracking of joint projects. Companies are paying a lot of attention to the use of the right technology to make communication and collaboration among virtual teams effective. For instance, at 'Cisco' their collaboration technologies are enabling their teams to share resources, information, and talent regardless of time or location. A case study portrays how Microsoft developed tools for their virtual teams in order to address collaboration requirements across disparate locations and cultures.



swingby_blog at 06:07コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 



Regulator Takes Aim at Olympus 
March 6, 2012 

TOKYO — The Japanese securities regulator said Tuesday that it would file criminal complaints against Olympus, as well as former executives and outside advisers to the company. The regulator, the Securities Exchange and Surveillance Commission, is the latest official body to take aim at the Tokyo-listed camera maker, which has disclosed a $1.7 billion accounting fraud. The agency requested that criminal charges be filed by public prosecutors against individuals involved in dubious takeovers and mergers that were used to cover up huge losses accumulated over a period of years by Olympus. 

東京ー 日本の証券監督機関は以前の経営者達とこの企業に対しての社外アドバイザーとオリンパスに対して刑事訴訟を提訴するだろうと火曜日に言った。監督機関である証券取引等監視委員会は17億ドルの会計不正行為を公表した東京証券取引所上場のカメラメーカーに狙いを定めた最近の公式団体だ。この機関はオリンパスによって長年累積した巨大な損失を隠蔽しようとした疑わしい買収と合併に参画した個人に対して検察庁の係官によって刑事訴訟が提訴される事を要求した。

The complaint against Olympus is that it filed false financial statements for the financial years that ended in March 2007 and March 2008. Last December, the company filed corrected earnings statements for five years to account for the fraud. Shin Ushijima, a former prosecutor who is now in private practice, said the filing of the complaint by the securities commission probably meant that prosecutors had already agreed to prosecute. “Most likely, the company will accept the charge, because the company’s main purpose is to recover as quick as possible, so they want to avoid any unnecessary conflict,” he said.  


In a statement referring to the regulator’s complaints, Olympus said, “We take the commission’s decision seriously and will continue out efforts to strengthen our corporate governance system.” The securities regulator named a former chairman, Tsuyoshi Kikukawa; a former executive vice president, Hisashi Mori; and a former auditor, Hideo Yamada, in the complaints, as well as Akio Nakagawa and Nobumasa Yokoo, former bankers for Olympus. The five people were among seven arrested last month by Tokyo prosecutors and the metropolitan police after a separate investigation. 


The seven were accused of hiding huge investment losses through complex takeover deals. Under the criminal charges, Olympus executives could face up to 10 years in prison, or a fine of up to 10 million, or nearly $125,000, lawyers said. The company could face a fine of up to 700 million, the Kyodo news agency reported. The complaints by the securities commission will not affect the company’s current listing status, the Tokyo Stock Exchange said.

この7人は複雑な買収取引を通じて、巨額の投資損失を隠蔽したことを告訴された。 刑事責任の下で、オリンパスの経営者達は刑務所に10年まで、もしくは1千万円、約125,000ドルまでの罰金に直面するだろうと弁護団は言った。この企業は7億円までの罰金が課されるかもしれないと共同ニュースは報道した。この証券委員会の告訴はこの企業の上場の状態に影響しないだろうとと東京証券取引所は言った。 

以上だが、引き続き今度はダイーバーシティの記事を扱う。Team Buildingのホームページより抜粋した。

Issues in Cross Cultural Teams
Cross-cultural teams can have their fair share of problems once the novelty of interacting with new people fades. From simple issues like understanding language idioms to more complex work culture issues, there is scope for a lot of problems. Global organisations are transferring people increasingly to other countries which creates cultural diversity within work teams. Though teams are now an accepted form of planning, strategizing and operation, team based management techniques are still evolving world over and when you introduce the additional element of cultural diversity, it throws a whole new spanner in the works!



swingby_blog at 07:55コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 




The other difficulty, which extends far beyond business, is a general suspicion in Japan of outsiders’ points of view. Take Tokyo Electric Power (TEPCO), operator of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear-power plant, wrecked by the March 11th earthquake and tsunami. A recent report by Bloomberg, citing minutes of a 2009 meeting, revealed that TEPCO and its regulator, the Economy and Trade Ministry, dismissed scientific findings about the risks of such natural disasters that could have helped prevent the meltdowns of three of the plant’s reactors. 


The nuclear industry is deeply incestuous. Not only do bureaucrats parachute from their ministries into the utilities, but their sons and daughters occasionally marry each other too. Nicholas Benes, who founded the Board Director Training Institute of Japan, a non-profit organisation, says that having more outsiders on TEPCO’s board, whether independent nuclear specialists, foreigners or women, might have helped ring alarm bells. As it was, 18 of the 20 voting members on TEPCO’s board came from the company itself.

原子力産業はひどく排他的である。彼らの省庁から電力企業への天下りばかりではなく、彼らの子女同士が時々、結婚もしている。Nicholas Benesは非営利組織の会社役員育成機構を創設したが、彼はTEPCOの役員会に独立した原子力の専門家、外国人、もしくは女性であろうとより多くの外部者を入れていれば警告のベルを鳴らす手助けをしてくれたかもしれないと言う。実のところ、TEPCOの役員会の20議席のうち18人は社内の人であった。

Tribalism extends to politics and the media too, frustrating debate, good policy, and the ability to call politicians to account. Members of Japan’s two biggest political parties acknowledge quite candidly that their first loyalty is to their faction’s boss, not to any policy. Hence the ruling Democratic Party of Japan often appears to be more at war with itself than with the opposition.


As for the media, senior reporters are assigned to cover factional power struggles within the parties, whereas complex policy questions are often covered by junior hacks. The mainstream media has a system, known as the Kisha Club, that tends to encourage complicity with official sources and conspires to keep trouble-making riff-raff out of press conferences. Financial journalists quietly acknowledge that one reason they buried Mr Woodford’s claims on the inside pages early in the Olympus scandal is that the story was broken by an obscure monthly magazine. Worse, Mr Woodford first spoke to theFinancial Times, not the Nikkei Shimbun.

メディアに関してはベテランの記者達が党内部の派閥権力闘争を担当する為にアサインされ、一方で、複雑な政策の質問は若い下働きの連中によってしばしばカバーされている。本流のメディアは記者クラブとして知られている仕組みを持っていて、公式な情報資源を共有しようとしていて、記者会見から問題を起こす「くず」を取り除こうと協力している。彼らがウッドフォード氏の要求をオリンパススキャンダルの早い時期に社内の問題として葬った理由の一つはこの話が目だたない月刊誌によって発表されたことだということを金融のジャーナリストは密かに認識している。更に悪いことに、 ウッドフォード氏は最初にファイナンチャルタイムズに話をして、日経新聞ではなかった。

Time for a shake-up
In politics, there are encouraging signs that some of this is starting to change. The prime minister, Yoshihiko Noda, has made policy front-page news for the first time in years, with his decision to push Japan gingerly towards negotiating a free-trade treaty with America and at least eight other countries, under the framework of the Trans-Pacific Partnership. 


Meanwhile, on November 27th, a publicity-seeking former governor, 42-year-old Toru Hashimoto, dealt a severe cuff to both mainstream political parties. Beating a candidate they jointly supported, he won election as mayor of Osaka on a single campaign pledge: to unite the city and prefecture of Osaka into one large metropolis that would strengthen its finances as well as its bargaining power with the political establishment in Tokyo.


His appeal suggests one stark aspect of governance in Japan—the patience of voters with hopeless mainstream politics—may at last be weakening. But in the tradition-bound, loyalty-bound business world, there is as yet little such clamour for change, from employees or shareholders, however much Mr Woodford has rattled their cages.

彼のアピールは日本のガバナンスの、一つのありのままの側面を提言している。ー 希望のない本流の政治に対する投票者達の忍耐ー それはようやく弱まって来ているのかもしれない。しかし、伝統に縛られた、忠誠心に縛られたビジネス世界の中で、 従業員から株主に至るまで、今のところはそうした変化に対する叫びが殆どないし、しかしながら、ウッドフォード氏は彼等をよりイライラさせている。


swingby_blog at 06:35コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 
















1 靖国問題を話題にしない。日中「友好」と言う虚構の上の関係を維持しない。

2 中国人学生の90%は英語を専攻している。日本語は5%である。 3 「あうん」は海外では通用せず、30%の効率を落としてしまう。









スウィングバイ2020株式会社 海野 恵一

今日で4月の仕事も終わりで、来週から連休だ。まとまって資料が整理できる。昨日は一日中会議と企業訪問で、忙しかったが、今日はゆっくり出来そうだ。さて今日は新しい記事だが、オリンパスの事件をダイバーシティという視点から問題視した記事だ。 これはエコノミストの記事だ。

Tribal Japan
Japan’s cherished loyalty system is part of the problem 
Dec 3rd 2011 


ON NOVEMBER 25th the venerable Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Japan experienced a volley of camera flashes, jostling television crews and shouts of “heads down at the front!”—the sort of attention it has rarely enjoyed since the country began its gentle slide down the world’s news agenda. The occasion was the return to Japan of Michael Woodford, the former boss of Olympus, a Tokyo-based lens-maker, who had been fired in October after he started asking awkward questions about $1.3 billion in suspicious transactions. His subject, in a nutshell, was corporate governance—not something that, in the abstract, usually sets reporters’ hearts aflutter. But as the club pointed out, not even the Dalai Lama had drawn such a crowd. 

11月25日に日本の由緒ある外国記者クラブでは一斉に起こるカメラのフラッシュ、押し合いへし合いをするテレビ局の一団そして「最前席は腰を屈めろ!」と言う叫びが起こった。ー この国が世界のニュースの議題からズルズルと滑り落ちはじめて以来めったに享受して来なかった注目の類いだった。この出来事は東京を本拠地としたレンズの製造企業である、オリンパスの前社長の Michael Woodfordが東京に戻って来た事であり、彼は13億ドルの疑義ある取引について厄介な質問し始めた後で、10月に解雇されてしまった。彼の主題は一言でいえば、コーポレートガバナンスであった。ー 理論的に考えれば、通常は記者団の気持ちをそわそわさせるものではないのだが。しかし、このクラブか指摘したように、ダライラマでさえもこれほどの人だかりが出来なかった。

Mr Woodford, who is adroit in the spotlight, says the whole saga has been like walking into a John Grisham novel. Having been sacked by the board and stripped of his office, home and company car on October 14th, the 30-year Olympus veteran—one of just four gaijin to run a leading Japanese company—was told to catch a bus to the airport. The American Federal Bureau of Investigation, Britain’s Serious Fraud Squad and the Japanese authorities are all now on the case.

Woodford氏はスポットライトの中で如才なく、途切れない大河小説がJohn Grishamの小説の中を歩いているようだったと言う。10月14日に役員会により解雇され、彼の執務室、家そして社用車を奪われ、30年のオリンパスのベテランはー 一流の日本企業を経営している4人の外人の一人であったが、ー 飛行場へのバスに乗るように言われた。アメリカ連邦調査局、イギリス重大不正捜査局そして日本の当局すべてがその事件を現在捜査中である。

But in retrospect, he says, one of the most chilling moments came when he was still chief executive and had unsuccessfully challenged his chairman, Tsuyoshi Kikukawa, to explain the missing money. He found another director, Hisashi Mori, also seemed to be stonewalling him. “Mr Mori, who do you work for?” he recalls asking, expecting the answer to be Olympus. “Michael, I work for Mr Kikukawa. I’m loyal to Mr Kikukawa,” Mr Mori is said to have replied. 


Mr Kikukawa, Mr Mori and the company’s statutory auditor have since resigned from the board of Olympus, accused of a huge cover-up of securities losses dating back to the 1990s. But other board members who supported them and who dumped Mr Woodford still have their jobs. The company insists that he was fired for failing to understand its management style, and Japanese culture, not for being an awkward whistleblower.


If every foreigner who didn’t understand Japanese culture were fired there would hardly be a gaijin businessman left in the country. The corporate ethos of every culture is in some sense unique. Japan’s is especially perplexing, not just because of its well-known emphasis on loyalty to the group, seniority-based pay and long-term job security. Firms are also doggedly clannish on the inside. As Mr Mori implied, loyalty to a manager or department can trump loyalty to the firm—even if that works against everyone’s long-term interests.

日本の文化を理解しなかったすべての外国人が解雇されるのであれば、この国に、外人の経営者が残るとこは難しいだろう。あらゆる企業文化の価値観はある意味で独特だ。日本のそれは特に面食らうものだが、グループへの忠誠心、年功に基づいた給与そして長期雇用保障に周知の重点が置かれているばかりではない。企業はまた、執拗に内側に排他的だ。森氏がほのめかしたように、経営者や部門への忠誠心は会社への忠誠心を凌ぐ。ー そのことがすべての人の長期的な利益に反しているとしても。 


swingby_blog at 02:24コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 




His lawyers submitted a letter of resignation early Thursday in Tokyo, he said. Mr. Woodford, a British national and one of only a few foreign chief executives at a major Japanese corporation, said he would have no part in an overseas buyout of Olympus, however. “I’m not trying to get involved to sell Olympus to an American health care group or an overseas health care group. I don’t want to be a part of that,” he told reporters in New York, according to Reuters. He had been approached by several parties interested in a buyout, Reuters quoted him as saying, but had not spoken to them. 


“This won’t be aggressive or hostile in any way,” he said. “I am quite Japanese in that sense.” Olympus said in a statement that it had accepted his resignation. The company has promised a thorough and impartial investigation of its past acquisitions, appointing an external panel of legal experts led by a former justice of Japan’s Supreme Court. That panel is expected to release its findings within days. Three former board members, who Olympus says were behind the cover-up of losses, have lost their positions and have now resigned from the company. 


Last week, Olympus also said the entire board was prepared to step down once necessary reforms were in place. In his statement, Mr. Woodford said those promises carried “little or no credibility.” It is “completely inappropriate,” he said, “for the current management team who are tainted by its past mistakes to make choices about the identity of new board members. Key decisions such as this should be made by the company’s shareholders.”


Nippon Life Insurance in Japan, among Olympus’s largest shareholders, has said it will stand by the current management. It recently slashed its holdings of the company, however, and retains about 5 percent. Southeastern Asset Management, which is Olympus’s biggest foreign shareholder with about 5 percent of shares, has backed Mr. Woodford and his calls for the board to step down. Mr. Woodford said he had spoken to some shareholders about the possible makeup of a new board, though he had yet to finalize his ideal team of directors.

オリンパスの最大の株主の中の日本生命保険相互会社は現在の経営陣を支持すると言った。しかしながら、そこは最近、この企業の株式を大幅に削減したが、約5%を保有している。Southeastern Asset Managementはオリンパスの外国の株主の最大で、約5%の株を持っていて、ウッドフォード氏と役員が辞任する彼の要求を支持している。ウッドフォード氏は更に理想の役員のチームを最終化しなければならなかったが、彼は新たな役員の組成の可能性について幾つかの株主に話をして来たと言った。

Olympus faces immediate hurdles, however. It must meet a Dec. 14 deadline to submit amended financial earnings statements or face a delisting from the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Such a move would wipe out investors’ stakes, severely constrict Olympus’s ability to raise capital and put it under pressure to sell off its most lucrative assets, including its highly competitive medical endoscope business. Any recognized links to organized crime syndicates could also get the company delisted. Japanese authorities are looking into any possible ties, as well as whether the company paid out money to these parties separate from its cover-up of losses.




swingby_blog at 06:37コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 




Former Olympus C.E.O. Resigns as Company Director 
December 1, 2011

In a bid to sweep away the old guard and salvage Olympus from a damaging accounting scandal, Michael C. Woodford, its ousted president, said that he would resign from the company’s board and work with supportive shareholders to plan an eventual return to his former job. 

守旧派を追い出し,被害を出した経理スキャンダルからオリンパスを救出することを目指して,Michael C. Woodfordは追放された社長だが,彼はその企業の役員を辞め、最終的に彼の前職に戻るために支持してくれている株主と一緒に取り組むと言った。

 Mr. Woodford, who was fired by Olympus in mid-October after raising questions about a series of irregular acquisition payouts, said Wednesday that he would join with shareholders to pressure the company into calling an extraordinary shareholders’ meeting as soon as February — and suggest his own set of “untainted” candidates for a new company board. The former executive now faces a battle against the current Olympus president, Shuichi Takayama, to see who can garner more shareholder support. 



ウッドフォード元社長、無効訴訟へ オリンパス株主総会
朝日新聞 2012年4月20日(金)


【まさわたの気になる人物】2012年4月21日【オリンパス元CEO】 マイケル・ウッドフォードさん  今、気になっている人である。この人は本物の匂いがする。昨日開かれたオリンパスの臨時総会。

議長役の高山社長は総会冒頭、「役員一同、心より深くおわび申し上げる」と謝罪。損失隠しの発覚に伴い2007年3月期までさかのぼって訂正した過去の決算も承認された。総会には過去最多の975人が来場した。開催時間も2時間59分で過去最長だった。 [時事通信社]


「フィナンシャルタイムズ」の編集長が「2011年にビジネスにおける勇気の精神を体現した人物をひとり挙げるとすれば、それはマイケル・ウッドフォード氏です」と述べている。その彼の言動を注目したい。日経新聞の記事によるとオリンパス元社長「笹氏、社長の資格ない」 人事を批判 2012/4/20 



http://ameblo.jp/masawata0/entry-11228810702.html 注 

Though Mr. Woodford has the support of major foreign investors, he may face resistance from institutional investors in Japan who still control a bulk of Olympus’s shares. “Let me make it explicitly clear: I am not walking away from Olympus,” Mr. Woodford said in a statement from New York, where he has met with F.B.I. officials who are investigating the case. “I would like nothing more than to return to Olympus and lead it.” Since Mr. Woodford went public in October with his concerns over Olympus’s finances, the company has admitted to using acquisition payments to hide old investment losses. 


Still, Olympus maintains that Mr. Woodford was fired because his aggressive, Western style of management was not a good match for the 92-year-old maker of endoscopes and cameras. Mr. Woodford had remained a director of the company since his dismissal, however, because only a shareholders’ meeting — or a resignation — could remove him from that position. He said Wednesday that he would resign, however, to be able to cooperate more freely with shareholders and other supporters. 

依然としてオリンパスはウッドフォード氏を解雇したままであり、と言うのは彼の積極的な経営のウェスタンスタイルが92年の歴史を持った内視鏡とカメラの製造企業にあわなかったためである。しかしながら、ウッドフォード氏は彼が解雇されてから、この企業の役員に留まっていた。と言うのは株主総会だけがー もしくは辞表ー が彼をそのポジションから解任することができたからである。しかしながら、彼は株主とその他の支持者達と自由に共同出来るようにするために辞任すると水曜日に彼は語った。


swingby_blog at 06:54コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 



海野 恵一



Swingby 最新イベント情報
海野塾のイベントはFacebookのTeamSwingbyを参照ください。 またスウィングバイは以下のところに引っ越しました。 スウィングバイ株式会社 〒108-0023 東京都港区芝浦4丁目2−22東京ベイビュウ803号 Tel: 080-9558-4352 Fax: 03-3452-6690 E-mail: clyde.unno@swingby.jp Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/clyde.unno 海野塾: https://www.facebook.com TeamSwingby

Recent Comments
  • 今日:
  • 累計:


社長ブログ ブログランキングへ