中国の改革:共産党の新しい青写真 三中全会での決議


Reform in China
The party's new blueprint

中国の改革:共産党の新しい青写真 三中全会での決議

Nov 16th 2013, 14:33 by J.M. | BEIJING

IN CHINA’S state-controlled media it is being called a new blueprint for reform, a reform manifesto, even “reform 2.0”. Such descriptions may be a little overblown, but the Communist Party has indeed produced its most wide-ranging and reform-tinged proposals for economic and social change in many years. The “Decision on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms”, as the document made public on November 15th is called, is likely to prompt a surge of experimentation in everything from trading rural land to the freeing of controls on interest rates. Barriers to migration will be further broken down and the one-child policy relaxed. A widely resented system of extra-judicial detention, known as laojiao (re-education through labour), will be scrapped.

Comprehensively :包括的に/徹底的に
Decision on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms:改革の全面的深化における若干の重要問題に関する中共中央の決定 すなわち「三中全会の決定」
broken down:取り壊す
resented :不快に思われた
re-education through labour:労働による再教育


The party is so enthused by the document that it broke with normal practice and published it just three days after it had been approved at a closed-door plenum in Beijing of its 370-strong Central Committee. It is normally a week or longer before the full contents of plenum resolutions are released (the public, in the meantime, having to make do with a much briefer and vaguer communique). The purpose of this hiatus is to ensure that the party’s more than 80m members have a chance to digest the document first. In this case leaders probably reckoned that speculation about the resolution’s contents was so high that it would seem odd to say nothing for so long. (The meeting was the third plenum in the party’s five-year cycle of such conclaves, and since the late 1970s third plenums have often been big agenda-setting occasions.) Some analysts had started wondering whether the paucity of reform proposals in the initial communique meant that President Xi Jinping had got cold feet. 

break with:破る
normal practice:通常の慣行
in the meantime:そうしているうちに/とりあえず
Central Committee:中央委員会
make do with:代用ですます/間に合わせる
digest :理解する
high:a lot of doubt
odd to say nothing:何も言わないのは変だ
had got cold feet:怖じ気づく/fear


To judge from a deluge of reformist talk in the media since the full resolution was published, the party’s propaganda apparatus appears eager to quash such speculation. In the past, speeches given by leaders at plenums have not been released. This time, however, Mr Xi’s remarks to the gathering about the importance of the resolution were made public along with the document itself. As Beijing Youth News reports, equivalent speeches at previous third-plenums dealing with reform had been given by lower-ranking leaders. Mr Xi is clearly signalling that he is taking personal charge of the reform process. (In his speech, he said that he had led the team responsible for drafting the resolution, a task that began seven months ago.) This gives the document added importance. It is likely he will take charge of a new “leading small group” responsible for coordinating reforms (there are rumours that the party chief of Shanghai, Han Zheng, might be redeployed to Beijing to help him). 

taking personal charge of:直接指揮を取る

全ての決議案が発表されてからメデイアでの多くの改革論者からの発言から判断すると、共産党の普及活動組織は、そうした憶測を躍起になって取り消そうとしているようだ。過去において、この会議での党のトップのスピーチは公表されていない。しかしながら今回は、決議案の重要さについてこの会議に対しての習近平の意見は文書それ自体によって一般大衆に公表された。Beijing Youth News によると、改革を扱った前回の全中三会の同様のスピーチは、やや権限が低い指導者達によるものだった。習近平は明らかに彼が改革プロセスの指揮を直接とるという合図を出している(習近平のスピーチでは、彼は7ヶ月前に始まった任務である決議を草稿する為のチームの責任を取ると言っていた)。このことが文書に需要性を与えている。彼は改革を調整する責任をもった新しい「指導的な小さなグループ」の担当になるかもしれない。(上海にいる共産党の書記Han Zhengは周近平を助けるために北京に移るかもしれないという噂がある。)


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メインのゲストであるJoe Dignanの続き
Cities developed from settlements where hunter-gathers realised they could get the animals to follow them if they could provide food and water. Therefore, the first cities formed where there was smart, sustainable use of water and natural resources, with the first city app being a well and the second a stockade. With apologies to Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation, cities developed in sophistication, starting with natural resources and moving away from that baseline through trade, war, power, education, religion and culture. Having dealt in some 400 words with 5,000 years of human history, where are we with cities and, in particular, the misnomer "smart" cities? Cities have always had to be smart to survive, and those that were not smart disappeared; ask Ozymandias. The point is that smart cities did not begin in 2007 with IBM, as it will be the first to admit, but have been part of the human landscape for as long as there have been human communities. The "smart" part of the equation is their ability to evolve and exploit what their age has to offer. A smart city is a developing organism that takes advantage of the best contemporary technology available.

develop from:から進展した
Abraham Maslow:アブラハム・マズロー◆アメリカの心理学者(1908〜1970)。人間の欲求を階層化し(Maslow's hierarchy of needs)、人間性心理学(humanistic psychology)の創始者となった。
moving away from:から脱皮する

都市は開拓地から進展したが、そこで狩猟採集者が食料と水を得ることができるのであれば獲物を追うことができることがわかったのである。それゆえ、最初の都市は水や天然資源が素早く持続可能に利用出来るところに作られ、まず都市の最初の技術は井戸で、次に防御柵であった。マズローの動機付け理論には申し訳ないが、都市は高度に複雑に開発されていて、天然資源の採取から始まって、貿易、戦争、権力、教育、宗教、文化を通じて大きく変わって来ているのである。 人類の5千年の歴史をわずか400の単語で語ろうとすると都市、特に間違った名称ので呼ばれている「スマートな」都市はどこに書くことになるのか?都市は生き残っていくために常にスマートでなければならず、スマートでない都市は消え去ってきたのであるとOzymandiasは言っている。 要するにスマートシティがIBMによって命名されたことは真っ先に認めるが、それは2007年にIBMによって造られたものではなく、人類の集落が存在したのと同じくらい前から人間の住んで来た景観の一部であった。都市の諸要素の「スマートな」部分は都市の長い間の年輪が提供しなければならないものを発展させ、開拓する能力なのである。スマートシティは現代の利用可能であるベストの技術を上手く利用する成長する有機体なのである。

This was brought home to me at a recent Smart City Africa event where the talk was not of "Jetson" like 3D printing of prescription drugs in your home but of keeping power on 24 hours a day or the issue of Johannesburg running out of water within seven years. Equally, the market can be further expanded into a minimum of four groups. There are greenfield sites in countries that have a command-and-control ability to mandate land use such as China, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and Russia. There are also groups of economic association that commonly have a lead city and an associated group of communities through shared culture or economic hegemony such as Bilbao and the Basque region. Then there is the retrofitting of mature cities in the developed world and special economic zones that have smart technology as an integral part of the master planning.

bring home to A B :AにBを痛感させる
Jetsons :《The 〜》宇宙家族ジェットソン◆ハンナ・バーベラ原作の米国アニメ
integral part of:なくてはならない部分

最近のSmart City Africaのイベントで私が痛感したのは議論の話題が自宅での処方薬の三次元印刷のような宇宙家族ジェットソン」ではなく、1日24時間の継続的な電力供給や7年以内に水がなくなるヨハネスブルクの問題であった。その一方で市場は少なくとも4つに分けられる。 |羚顱▲汽Ε献▲薀咼◆韓国、ロシアのように土地利用を委託するための指揮命令系統を持っている国の未開発エリア ▲好撻ぅ鵑離咼襯丱やバスク地域のように共有の文化もしくは経済の支配を通じて主要都市並びに共同体の関連したグループを有している経済共同体 先進国における成熟都市の一部や特別な経済圏。そこではスマートテクノロジーの利用が都市計画に不可欠な要素になっている。

Once we decouple the "smart" in smart cities from the IT industry, we enter a world of "intelligent cities", "digital cities", "connected cities" and more. Those grappling with smart-city solutions include the telecoms, financial services, utilities, construction, health-care, education, government, public safety and national security, and environment sectors. It is therefore no surprise that different industries approach the subject from their comfort zones. IT companies define a smart city through a technology lens; developers concentrate on physical infrastructure; utilities insist it is about sustainable energy; and the green lobby champions the environment. Smart cities are all of the above.

environment sectors:環境保護団体
comfort zone:適した領域

スマートシティにおける“スマート”をIT産業から切り離せば、 “インテリジェントシティ”、“デジタルシティ”、“コネクトシティ”などの領域に進むことになる。こうしたスマートシティ解決策の取り組みは、通信、金融サービス、電力、建設、ヘルスケア、教育、行政、治安、安全保障、環境といった分野を含む。 それ故、異なる産業がそれぞれの立場で関わってくることは当然である。IT企業はスマートシティを技術的な観点から定義し、開発業者は物理的なインフラに注目し、電力企業は持続可能なエネルギーを主張し、環境保護団体は環境を擁護する。スマートシティはこれらすべてに関わるものである。

Smart cities have passed the inflection point from visioning to implementation, but there are still three major challenges. The first is an identifiable client; the second is the smart policies needed to drive smart delivery; and the third is that the vendor community needs to work more closely together to develop the market by agreeing a scalable, open, interoperable platform on which city solutions can work.

 inflection point :変曲点


Winner announcement
December 13, 2013
Ludwig Siegele

Apart from a difference in style, I don't think the debaters were that far apart. Both, for instance, agree that digital technology will make cities smarter; both think that this is a good thing; and both do not want this to be imposed by big vendors. So it is no surprise that the vote is close. Congratulations to Irving Wladawsky-Berger. But also congratulations to Anthony Townsend for putting up a good fight. Many thanks to both of them, as well as Messrs Greenfield and Dignan and our commenters, for making this debate such a lively and informative affair.


スタイルは違うが、討論者たちは大きく異なった言えるとは思わない。たとえば、両者ともデジタル技術が都市をよりスマートにし、それは良いことであり、大企業に強いられるものであって欲しくないという点には賛同している。結果は僅差であったが、Irving Wladawsky-Bergerの勝利。

月曜日。今日はこれまで。 19日間のスマートシティはこれで終わり。明日は三中全会だ。日曜日はいつものことだが忙しかった。天気もよかった。今日は夜まで、1日多忙だ。夜はB-lifeの環境の会合だ。ではまた明日。

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Irving Wladawsky-Berger (反論側)からの閉会の意見の続き
A number of the comments to our debate have wisely pointed out that we have much to learn. I like John D. Macomber's suggestion that we should use tried-and-true Strategy 101 type templates like market segmentation and value creation, and ask ourselves basic questions like "Who are we? Where are we trying to go? What are the gaps in getting there?" as a way to guide our smart-city efforts. Let's learn as we go. 


この討論へのコメントは我々は多くのことを学ばなければならないということを指摘していた。私はJohn D. Macomberが市場のセグメンテーションと価値創造のような実証済みのStrategy 101のようなテンプレートを利用するべきだと提唱していて、スマートシティに関する取り組みを導く方法として、“我々は何者か”、“どこへ行こうとしており、何が足りないか?”という基本的な質問を我々自身に問うている。

And I would like to conclude with the comment by Rick Huijbregts, who nicely captured my feelings about smart cities in this paragraph: "I applaud every Mayor, planner, engineer, builder, politician … and tech company that is trying to bring new ideas and capabilities to the table that will ultimately help create networks of sustainable communities that can handle the population growth, economic shifts and political hardships, and create new opportunities for everyone. "Smart Cities" is not an end-state, and the journey has only just began. Rather than focusing on all that is wrong, maybe we focus on all that is good―learn from it―and evolve." 

bring new ideas and capabilities to the table :アイデアを出し合う 

Rick Huijbregtsのコメントをもって締めくくりたい。彼はスマートシティについての私の考えをよく現してくれている。「私は人口増加、経済変化、政治的な難局に対処することのできる、そして誰にでも新たな機会を創造する持続可能なコミュニティのネットワークの構築に究極に繋がる新たなアイデアや可能性を出し合おうとしてる全ての市長、政治家、プランナー、エンジニア、建設企業を称賛したい。“スマートシティ”は最終形ではなく、ようやく始まった所である。悪い点に焦点を当てるより、良い点に着目し、そこから学び、進化させていってはどうか。」 

Featured guest 
Joe Dignan 
The question "Are smart cities empty hype?" is intentionally provocative and was no doubt designed to appeal to the well-known prejudices in the arena, but it presupposes that there is a common definition of smart cities and that there is one market. Equally, the debate appears to polarise it between a "resistance" movement of citizen activists, academia and small and medium-sized enterprises against the hegemonic ambitions of a few global IT companies. It would be wonderful if it were that simple. I would argue that "smart cities" is not hype but useful shorthand for the natural process of applying maturing technology and thinking to current societal challenges. The vibrancy of cities is important. My favourite quote on the importance of cities came from Barcelona's chief information officer, who was asked how important cities are to the economy in comparison to nation states. He responded: "Barcelona has been around for 2,000 years. I am not sure how much longer Spain will be around." Smart cities are not a matter of bits and bytes but people and evolution. 

natural process:自然の成り行き 
be around:いる
bits and bytes:ちょっとやそっとの情報量

メインのゲストであるJoe Dignan

In the same way that we are moving away from putting an "e" in front of service delivery using technology, we will probably lose the "smart" tag for smart cities. I have read many attempts to describe what a smart city is, but it is much easier to describe what a smart city is not. Firstly, it is not a city. It is a community of interests not defined by city limits, often manifesting itself as a city cluster of economic relativity. Some form of physical perimeter helps, but that is only in conjunction with budget and policy authority. Secondly, it is not about IT, though access to IT is important. It is most certainly not about IT companies, but IT companies are critical. Thirdly, it must not be thought about in terms of efficiency, productivity, shared services, cost reduction, or the imperatives of the centrally planned Thomas Gradgrind School of Improvement. Nor is it the social-capital panacea required of the "happy clappy" school of big-society citizen activists. 

市境 cluster:クラスター/集団/本来「ぶどうの房」を意味するが、特定分野における関連機関(大学、研究機関等)、関連企業、サービス提供者、関連業界に属する企業が地理的に集中し、競争しつつ同時に協力できる状態を意味する用語として用いられている。 
in conjunction with:と連結して 
most certainly:間違いなく
Thomas Gradgrind School of Improvement:チャールズ・ディケンズの小説「ハード・タイムズ」では、主要登場人物の一人が Thomas Gradgrind。 One who relies solely on scientific measurements and observable facts without taking human nature into consideration. 
happy clappy:手拍子をとって聖歌を歌うなど情熱的な礼拝を行うキリスト教会の信者. 
social-capital :社会・地域における人々の 信頼関係や結びつきを表す概念。 

技術を利用したサービス提供の前に“e”を付けなくなってきているのと同じように、スマートシティからも“スマート”という文字がなくなるであろう。スマートシティとは何かを説明しようとしたものをよく読んできたが、スマートシティでないものを言う方がずっと簡単である。  第1に都市ではない。市の境界線では定義されない利害集団であり、経済的な関係を持ったクラスターとして言い表されている。ある種の物理的な境界でもありえるが、それは単なる予算や政策に対する権限に連結しているに過ぎない。 第2にITへのアクセスは重要であるが、ITに関係がない。IT企業は不可欠であるが、間違いなくIT企業に関係していないということである。  第3にそれは効率性、生産性、シェアードサービス、コスト削減、もしくは中央集権的なThomas Gradgrindの改善学校の命令の観点から考えてはならない。大きな社会市民活動の「幸せで手を叩いて聖歌を歌う学校に要求される社会の信頼関係を結びつける万能薬でもない。


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Irving Wladawsky-Berger (反論側)からの閉会の意見の続き
The original question driving this debate, "are smart cities empty hype?", is similarly being asked of big data and data science―our ability to gather, analyse and extract insights from the huge amounts of data we are now able to collect. This is not surprising. The qualifier "smart", whether applied to cities, health care, or government, essentially means information-based or data-driven. So, I believe that the promise of smart cities is inexorably linked to the general promise of big data and data science. 



Scientific revolutions are launched when new tools make possible all kinds of new measurements and observations. Early in the 17th century, Galileo made major improvements to the recently invented telescope which enabled him to make discoveries that radically changed our view of the universe. Over the centuries we have seen that new tools, measurements and discoveries precede major scientific breakthroughs in physics, chemistry, biology and other disciplines. 



Big data is such a measurement revolution made possible by the new digital tools all around us, including location data transmitted by our mobile phones; searches, web links and social-media interactions; payments and transactions; the myriad smart sensors keeping track of the physical world; and so on. Perhaps the most exciting part of data science is that it can be applied to just about any domain of knowledge, given our new-found ability to gather valuable data on almost any topic. 

myriad :無数の 


In particular, data science holds great promise for cities and other socio-technical systems like those found in health care, business and government. These systems have to deal with not only the complexities associated with large-scale physical and digital infrastructures, but also the even more complex issues involved in human and organisational behaviours. 


Our new big-data tools have the potential to usher an information-based scientific revolution in cities and other such highly complex social institutions. We need to learn how to best leverage our tools―their benefits as well as their limits―and how to surmount major obstacles, including privacy concerns. But, like all scientific revolutions, this will take time, and the necessary educational and research programmes are in the very early stages. 




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Irving Wladawsky-Berger (反論側)からの閉会の意見の続き
Complex platforms like those we envision for smart cities must be firmly grounded on open-source software and open industry standards jointly developed by their key stakeholders, as is the case with the web. In fact, smart-city platforms will probably be developed leveraging the web and other such internet-based systems. Only then can they attract a large ecosystem of innovators―including individuals, start-ups, professional organisations, established companies and city agencies―that will build a wide variety of applications and services on the platform. 

firmly grounded on:しっかりと に基づいている
Only then:その時になってようやく


I agree with The Economist's observation in "The Multiplexed Metropolis" that there will hopefully be a large variety of platforms and applications depending on the kinds of users and ecosystems one wants to attract. Most complex software systems are composed of horizontally stacked layers of platforms. The base, as is the case with the internet and the web, is optimised for economies of scale and interoperability. This is where open source is most important. As you go up the stack, you find more fragmentation and variety. Some layers will be open to anyone, while others will be more like proprietary walled gardens aimed at different kinds of apps. Some will offer almost everything a user needs, while others will be bare-bone affairs. Some will be developed by individuals, professional organisations and city agencies as public services, while others will be for profit, brought to market by start-ups and established companies. 

kinds of:all kinds of/たくさんの/様々な
horizontally stacked:横積みされた
walled garden:壁に囲まれた庭

私は"The Multiplexed Metropolis"でのEconomistの見解に賛成である。そこでは、恐らく引き込みたい様々なユーザーや企業のグループ次第で、多様なプラットフォームやアプリケーションがあり得るだろうと言われている。ほとんどの複雑なソフトウエアシステムは水平的に重なったプラットフォームからなっている。インターネットやウエブと同じように、ベースとなる部分は規模の経済や相互運用のために最適化されている。この点こそ、オープンソースであることが最も重要なところである。プラットフォームの階層が上がるにつれてソフトウェアはより断片化し、多様化する。幾つかの階層は誰にでもオープンであるが、その他の階層は異なったアプリケーションを目的とした独自の壁に囲まれた庭のようだ。幾つかの階層はユーザーが必要とするほとんどすべてのモノを提供するが、必要最低限しか提供しないものもある。あるものは個人や専門機関、市政府機関によって公的サービスとして開発されるが、新興企業や大きな企業によって持ち込まれる営利目的のものもある。

"Tim O'Reilly, one of the IT industry's more thoughtful gurus, talks of a future in which government itself is best seen as a platform," wrote The Economist. "If that is the way things are headed, cities may be in the van. City governments could provide basic services such as environmental and traffic information, a citywide payment system along the lines of those now often used for mass transit and firewalls to keep users safe from hackers and other digital mischief-makers―and let citizens and companies use them to build their own offerings. But the balance between what the city provides and what is sorted out by the citizens and the companies they do with business with will differ from place to place." 

things get headed in the wrong direction with ...: どうも〜の様子がおかしい
 in the van:先頭に立って 
mass transit:公共交通機関/大量輸送機関
along the lines of:に倣って 

Ecomonistでは、IT産業界のリーダーであるTim O'Reillyは政府自身がプラットフォームになっている将来について話したことを取り上げている。「もしそうだとすれば、都市がその先陣を切ることになるだろう。市政府は環境情報や交通情報のような基本的なサービスである、交通機関やファイアウォールの仕組みを利用している人々の為の決済システムを提供することができる。そして市民や企業がそれを利用して彼ら自身の提供するものを作ることができる。しかし、都市が提供するものと市民や企業によって展開されるもののバランスは場所によって異なるだろう。」

Key to making this wide variety of applications work is the ability to interoperate and share data as appropriate. This is what has made the web so successful since its inception over 20 years ago. Hopefully, smart-cities platforms will follow a similar evolution. 

as appropriate:必要に応じて 

この広範にわたる多様なアプリケーションを機能させるための鍵は、必要に応じて相互運用したりデータを共有できるかどうかである。20年以上にわたってウェブが始まって以来成功したのもこのためである。 恐らくスマートシティプラットフォームはにたような進化を遂げるだろう。


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To conclude this debate, I must reiterate my opening argument that it is the smart-city visions sold by industry over the past half-decade that are indeed empty hype. 


But at the same time, we have barely begun to explore the vast potential of building smart cities, along the lines not of the instant cities of the 20th century but of traditional cities that evolved over time, shaped by the bare hands and rainy-day savings of their inhabitants, literally from the materials at hand. 

along the lines of:に従って/に沿って
at hand:手元にある 


Much like our co-operative wireless mesh in Hoboken, it turns out that many of the problems that cities face do not lend themselves to quick, top-down solutions designed by big companies. In many cases, problems need to be addressed at a fine-grain scale with active participation by citizens in crafting, implementing, maintaining and improving them over time. 



Mr Wladawsky-Berger seems to believe that the current division of responsibility for delivering public services between city governments (and their corporate advisers) and citizens is a static balance. It is at best a few hundred years old, and is under tremendous strain throughout the world. And change is mobilising quickly. Big companies are exerting tremendous leverage over city governments through public-private partnerships. Citizen-driven initiatives are making great strides as well, exploiting new tools for co-ordinating collective action, like online crowdfunding. 

division of responsibility:責任の分担
static balance:静的な釣り合い
at best:よくても/せいぜい 
under strain:負担がかかっている 
making great strides:飛躍的発展を遂げる


For local government, the challenge is not figuring out how to preserve the status quo. Rather it needs to be redefining itself as an agile master integrator of all these other efforts. In an age of severe fiscal austerity, economic stagnation and fast-gathering threats from climate change, it may be the only way to remain relevant. 

fiscal austerity:緊縮財政 


The opposition's closing remarks
Dec 11th 2013 
Irving Wladawsky-Berger 
As our debate moderator, Ludwig Siegele, points out, I opened my rebuttal by agreeing with many of the points made by Anthony Townsend, whereas Mr Townsend chose to emphasise our differences. I was frankly surprised that he chose to do so in what reads a bit like an angry rant, but so be it. Let's now move on to my closing statement. 

so be it:それならそれでよい 

Mr Townsendは違いを強調したが、司会者が言ったように、私は多くの点に賛同することから反論を始めた。Mr Townsendが怒っているようにも思える書き方をしたのには正直驚いたが、それらなそれでよい。 

In his moderator remarks, Mr Siegele asks me to comment on whether I think that it is really an option for cities to adopt proprietary platforms. Absolutely not. My categorical answer is based on my personal experience over the past 20 years, having led IBM's internet and Linux initiatives and worked closely with a number of open communities. 




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