大きな金融機関が15分以内にハッキングされる時代 電子メールのより多くの選択肢でのFacebookでのシェア、Twitterでのシェア、LinkedInでのシェア


The time a major financial institution was hacked in under 15 minutes
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By Brian Fung January 14 


Christopher B. Doggett is managing director of cybersecurity firm Kaspersky Lab North America. (Courtesy Kaspersky) 
Christopher B. Doggettはサイバーセキュリティ会社・北米カスペルスキーの社長だ(カスペルスキー提供) 

Online attacks against such prominent targets as Sony, Target and Home Depot have brought cybersecurity and digital privacy to the forefront of the national consciousness. But as the technologies we use grow more sophisticated, so will criminals' attempts to defeat them, according to Chris Doggett, North American managing director of Kaspersky Lab, a Moscow-based international information security firm. In an interview this month in Washington, Doggett said financial fraud and identity theft pose far more danger to Americans than shadowy hacking groups such as Lizard Squad, which has taken partial credit for breaching Sony's systems. He added that no network is ever completely secure — as one major Wall Street client found out when Doggett was working as a private security consultant. The following transcript has been edited for length and clarity. 

identity theft:なりすまし犯罪・個人情報の盗難
take credit for:自分がやったという

ソニー、ターゲット、ホームデポといった著名な標的へのオンライン攻撃は、サイバーセキュリティやデジタルプライバシーを国民意識の中心にもたらした。しかし、モスクワに拠点を置く国際的な情報セキュリティ会社であるカスペルスキーの北米社の社長Chris Doggettによれば、我々が利用する技術がより高機能になると共に、それらを困らせる犯罪者の攻撃も増えることになる。今月のワシントンでのインタビューで、Doggettは金融詐欺やなりすまし犯罪はソニーのシステムを破った一翼を担ったとされるLizard Squadといった正体のはっきりしないハッキンググループよりもずっと多くの危険をアメリカ人にもたらしていると述べた。Doggettは、彼が民間のセキュリティコンサルタントとして働いていた際にウォールストリートにある大顧客が気付いたように、完全に安全なネットワークなどないと付け加えた。次の原稿は紙面の関係と分かりやすくするために編集されている。 

Brian Fung: What are some of the big issues in cybersecurity now, and what do you see as the top priorities in 2015?
Chris Doggett: What we've seen is a major acceleration in cybercriminal operations, number one, and then secondarily in cyberespionage operations. Targeted attacks have been on the rise, and they're now a major part of the threat landscape. That's something that's been of a lot of interest to us in the security community and something we do a lot of research on. 

Brian Fung:現在のサイバーセキュリティにおける大きな問題はどういったことですか?2015年に最も大事なことは何だと考えていますか? 
Chris Doggett:我々が目にしているのは、サイバー犯罪活動の急加速です。これが1つ目。そして2つ目がサイバー諜報活動。標的型攻撃が増えてきており、現在、これらがサイバー上の脅威に関する主な状況です。これらがセキュリティ分野における我々の大きな関心事になっており、多くの調査を行っている事です。 

The common theme we see is that the actors in a lot of these operations, whether they're criminals or nation states, have continued to become more and more sophisticated and more and more elusive. So it's become harder and harder to uncover these operations, unless they're folks that want to get recognized. 

elusive: 捕まえにくい 


Brian Fung:Which do you see as the more pernicious threat, the Lizard Squad-type hacking groups or state-based actors? 
Chris Doggett:I think it was [computer security and privacy expert] Bruce Schneier who referred to the Lizard Squad guys as being kids playing politics. I think that's troublesome, and certainly in the case of Sony some of the information disclosures are damaging for sure. But I think the more concerning areas are more primarily based around financial fraud and theft. It's very clear that organized crime has started to really become a major player in the cyberthreat landscape, so most of these attacks that we see that are major thefts are very sophisticated and involve almost an ecosystem of different players. 

pernicious: 有害な/悪質な/致命的な 
play politics: 策をろうする 
for sure:確かに

Brian Fung:Lizard Squadタイプのハッキング集団と国家ベースの活動者のどちらがより致命的な脅威だと考えていますか? 
Chris Doggett:Lizard Squadの奴らを策を図る子供のようだと述べたのはBruce Schneier(コンピューターセキュリティと個人情報の専門家)だったと思います。それは厄介なことだし、ソニーの件では、一部の情報が公開されてしまったことは確かに損害をもたらすものだと思います。しかし、より懸念すべきなのは、まず金融詐欺・窃盗に関連するところだと思います。非常に明らかなのは、組織的犯罪はサイバー脅威に関する状況でまさに主要な問題になり始めています。それは、主要な窃盗事件であり、我々が目にしているこうした攻撃のほとんどは非常に高度で、異なるプレーヤーによる共存共栄のシステムのようなものを含んでいます。 

Brian Fung:Financial crime obviously has a very long history. What's new about the attacks we're seeing now against banks or other institutions? 
Chris Doggett:In this past year we saw just how deeply these guys can get into the systems. For example, there was a major operation that we saw in Eastern Europe, "Tyupkin," which involved ATM attacks. These guys were basically able to upload malware to ATMs and then send mules into this ATM network and have them walk up to a machine at a prescribed time and enter a code that would bring up a management console that would show them how much money was in each cassette in the ATM. And they could select to dump the cash out of that cassette right into their hands, and then they had to go make a drop. 

mule: 運び屋 
dump: 放出する 
drop: 隠し場所/受け渡し場所 

Brian Fung:当然ながら、金融犯罪には非常に長い歴史があります。現在、我々が目にしている銀行やその他の金融機関に対する攻撃では何が新しいのですか? 
Chris Doggett:この一年で、我々はこうした輩がいかに深くシステムに入り込むことができるかが分かりました。例えば、東ヨーロッパではATMへの攻撃を行った“Tyupkin”という大きな組織的活動がありました。つまり、奴らはATMにマルウエアをアップロードし、それからミュール(運び屋)をATMネットワークに送り込み、所定の時間にコンピューターに移動させ、コードを入力し、ATMのそれぞれのカセットに幾らあるのかを管理コンソールに出すことができたのです。そして、そのカセットから彼らの手元に現金を放出するように選択することができた。それから現金を受け取りにいったはずです。 



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Hidden-city発券 航空会社からの通知:このブログ投稿は無視して下さい(3)

The airlines’ desire to keep the hidden-city ticketing genie more or less in the bottle is certainly understandable. In fact, it probably benefits everyone in the long run. However, United’s decision to haul Mr Zaman into court now looks spectacularly shortsighted. First, his right to disseminate information about hidden-city itineraries is protected by the First Amendment. The only legal issues at stake in the case are whether he was entitled to use data from Orbitz or airline websites, and to provide direct links to them for purchases. 

genie: 精霊/悪霊 
let the genie out of the bottle:(人が)取り返しのつかないことをしてしまう
haul: 〜を引きずり出す 
disseminate: 広める 
First Amendment: 米国憲法修正第1項(言論の自由)
at stake:重要な・議論すべき
was entitled to:権利がある


Moreover, even if Skiplagged vanished from the internet tomorrow, the automated hidden-city lookup tool Mr Zaman sought to offer already exists, thanks to none other than Google. With just a little know-how, it is easy to find hidden-city flights on Matrix, the search giant’s advanced airfare site (see guide below). 

vanish: 消えてなくなる 
lookup: 検索 


As long as sites like Matrix exist, United was never going to prevent determined travellers from finding hidden-city tickets. But by turning Mr Zaman into a martyr for free speech, the airline unleashed a tidal wave of interest in the practice. Since the lawsuit was filed and the media got wind of the case, Google search traffic for “hidden city ticketing” has risen 25 times over. As a result, countless thousands of people who had never heard of the practice will probably try their hand at it. Indeed, had United simply left the harmless Mr Zaman and his rather user-unfriendly, occasionally buggy website to his own devices, the how-to guide below would never have been written. 

martyr: 殉死者 
unleash: 解き放つ/爆発させる 
tidal wave: 大きな動き 
get wind of:嗅ぎつける

Matrixのようなサイトが存在するだけであれば、ユナイテッド航空は決してそれを使うことを決めている旅行者がhidden-cityチケットを探すことを妨害しようとはしなかっただろう。しかし、Zaman氏を言論の自由を求めた犠牲者にしたことによって、この方法への大きな関心を爆発させた。訴訟となり、メディアがそれをかぎつけたことから、“hidden city ticketing”のGoogle検索数は25倍に増加している。結果として、数千とも数万とも知れないこれまでその方法を聞いたことなどなかった人達がおそらくその方法を試してみることになるだろう。もしユナイテッド航空が単にいたいけなZaman氏とどちらかと言えばユーザーフレンドリーでなく時にバグのあるウエブサイトを放っておいていたなら、下記のhow-toガイドは決して書かれることがなかっただろう。 

How to book a hidden-city trip on Matrix
Click on the “One-way” tab and enter your departure city and travel date. Then click on the “Advanced routing codes” link, and in the “Enter outbound routing codes” field, type “X:” followed by the three-letter airport code of your destination city (e.g. “X:CVG” for Cincinnati). Finally, in the “Destination” field, pick an airport that’s centrally located in the region you’re flying in (I use St Louis for the United States), click on “Nearby”, choose “2,000 miles” in the “Within” field, press “Select all”, and then hit “Search”. This will hunt for all trips from your origin to all airports within 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of the fake destination city you’ve listed that include a connection through your chosen hidden city. This process takes about 15 seconds. Once you’ve identified an itinerary, you can book it directly on the airline’s website. 
Note: Booking such hidden-city tickets is against many airlines' terms and conditions. 

“片道”タブをクリックし、出発都市と旅行日を入力する。そして、“詳細なルートコード”をクリックし、“アウトバウンドのルートコード”に“X:”に行先都市の3桁の空港コードを付けて入力する(例:“X:CVG”)。最後に、“行先”で飛行機で到着する地域の中心に位置する空港(私はアメリカの代わりにセントルイスを使っている)を選んで、“すぐ近く”をクリックし、“範囲”で“2,000マイル”を選び、“全て選択”を押し、それから“検索”を押す。そうすると、出発地から、記入した見せ掛けの行先都市の2,000マイル(3,200km)以内にある全ての空港までのhidden cityでの乗り継ぎを含むすべての旅程が検索される。このプロセスにかかるのは15秒だ。旅程を見つけたらすぐに、航空会社のウエブサイトで直接購入することができる。 



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Hidden-city発券 航空会社からの通知:このブログ投稿は無視して下さい(2)

Hidden-city ticketing is no free lunch—in fact, it is both selfish and economically harmful. The passenger merely saves the difference between the direct and hidden-city fares ($55 in the example above). The airline, however, loses both that revenue and the value of the empty seat on the second leg. Travellers might not shed a tear over denying precious income to big bad airlines who pack them in like sardines. But the fact is that these companies still operate on slim profit margins. If hidden-city ticketing became widespread, the airlines’ first response would surely be to raise prices on connecting itineraries, leading to higher airfares across the board. 

free lunch: ただでもらえる物 
shed: (涙を)流す 
deny: (必要なものを)与えない 
sardine: イワシ 
across the board: 全般的に 


Still, the practice is not yet particularly widespread, for several reasons. First, opportunities to deploy it are fairly uncommon: an airline has to have significant power over a route (as Delta does with Cincinnati-Atlanta) to make it viable. It also involves myriad limits and risks. Hidden-city ticketers either have to buy one-way fares or save the trick for the second half of a round-trip, since once they fail to show up for a flight any subsequent segments on the same itinerary will be cancelled. What is more, they can’t check luggage, which would be sent on to their stated final destination. In addition, they run the risk of being rebooked on a different route to their official destination in the event of a delayed flight or bad weather. And since most airlines’ conditions of carriage expressly forbid the practice, people who do it often enough to attract the company’s attention can have their frequent-flier accounts suspended, miles voided and any elite status revoked. 

viable: 実行可能な 
myriad: 無数の/多種多様な 
carriage: 輸送 
forbid: 禁止する 
revoke: 取り消す 


Yet despite these obstacles, the savings from a hidden-city ticket can sometimes justify these risks and inconveniences. So perhaps the biggest reason why the practice is not more common is that even though there have been numerous articles published on the topic—Nate Silver wrote a primer back in 2011—it is still something of a trade secret among the most dedicated fliers. This is where Mr Zaman enters the picture. 

primer: 入門書 
enter the picture: 取りざたされる 

しかし、こうした障害にもかかわらず、hidden-cityチケットはしばしばそうしたリスクや不都合を負うだけの価値を持ち得る。そのため、この方法がより広まっていない一番の理由は、Nate Silverが2011年に入門書を書いたように、この話題について数多くの記事が発表されているにもかかわらず、依然そうしたことに熱心な人達の間での企業秘密のようなものがある。Zaman氏が取りざたされたのはこの点だ。 

As a college student, he learned about the loophole from Mr Silver’s article, which told readers that the way to find hidden-city fares was to hunt individually for “phantom flights into airports that are more competitive” than fortress hubs like Cincinnati and Atlanta. Seeing a problem that called out for automation, Mr Zaman set up Skiplagged, which listed hidden-city options alongside conventional fares (with a “NO CHECKED BAGS” disclaimer), and linked to Orbitz to reserve them. The airlines and Orbitz demanded that Mr Zaman stop, and sued him when he did not. In a remarkable display of youthful naivete, Mr Zaman failed to set up a company before launching the site, meaning that he could be held personally liable for any damages. However, in an equally impressive demonstration of youthful resourcefulness, he has set up a campaign on GoFundMe, a crowdfunding website, and already raised nearly $65,000 for his legal defence. 

phantom: 実在しない 
disclaimer: 免責条項 
naivete: 素朴さ/純朴さ 
resourcefulness: 機知に富むこと/高い処理能力を有すること 




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Hidden-city発券 航空会社からの通知:このブログ投稿は無視して下さい


Hidden-city ticketing 
Airlines to public: please ignore this blog post 
Jan 12th 2015, 17:37 BY D.R. | NEW YORK 


THERE’S nothing like a pair of big corporations suing a 22-year-old kid to turn an obscure loophole into a viral internet sensation. On November 17th United Airlines, one of the three giant American carriers, and Orbitz, an online travel agency, filed a federal lawsuit demanding damages “in excess of $75,000” against Aktarer Zaman, a recent college graduate and the creator and owner of the website Skiplagged. The service enabled users to discover cheap airfares that did not appear on competing engines’ searches by utilising a tactic known as “hidden-city ticketing”, which takes advantage of occasional anomalies in airlines’ pricing algorithms. 

obscure: はっきりとしない 
anomalia: 異常 

22歳の若者を相手に訴訟を起こした1組の大企業ほど、はっきりとしない抜け穴を瞬く間に広がるインターネットの大事件にした例はない。11月17日、アメリカの3大航空会社の1社であるユナイテッド航空とオンライン旅行代理店のオービッツは、最近大学を卒業した、ウェブサイトSkiplaggedを創り保有しているAktarer Zamanに対し“75,000ドルを超える”損害賠償を求める訴訟を連邦裁判所に申し立てた。そのサービスは、航空会社の価格設定アルゴリズムにおける偶発的異常を巧みに利用した“hidden-city ticketing”として知られる方法を使うことによって、競合するエンジンの検索には出てこないような安価な航空運賃をユーザーが見つけられるようにした。 

Ever since America deregulated air travel in 1978, the leading carriers have developed “hub-and-spoke” route networks, which require passengers to connect through a few strategically located airports en route to most destinations. This system has vastly reduced costs by allowing airlines to pack the same number of travellers into far fewer flights. There might only be three people a day who want to go from, say, Albany to Albuquerque, but there are enough people heading from Albany to anywhere else, and from anywhere else to Albuquerque, to support one or two flights a day between those two cities and a central hub. A side effect of this model is that each carrier tends to dominate the market at its hubs, which gives it significant pricing power. Delta, for example, transports three-quarters of passengers at Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International, a big reason why that airport is the most expensive to fly through in America. In contrast, non-hub cities, as well as markets so big that no airline can afford to ignore them, such as New York and Los Angeles, tend to offer much more competitive fares. 


Because the costs of operating a flight (plane, fuel, and crew) are mostly fixed, airlines have a strong incentive to fill their planes. And since most leisure travellers decide which airline to fly based exclusively on price and convenience, airfares have a very high demand elasticity. This leads to brutal price competition. To make the hub-and-spoke system work, airlines usually need to come close to matching the lowest fare from a rival on every route. And when their competitors have a direct flight and they can only offer a connecting one, they often need to undercut it by a meaningful margin. 

elasticity: 需要の弾力性 


These straightforward economics sometimes lead to a bizarre consequence. In certain circumstances, airlines charge less for a multi-legged flight than they do for the first leg of the same route by itself. To illustrate with an example, let’s stick with Cincinnati. At the time of writing, Delta’s cheapest one-way fare from Atlanta to Cincinnati on February 6th is $252. However, to get from Atlanta to Dallas-Fort Worth with a connection through Cincinnati—on that same initial flight—costs just $197. This is because Delta is the only airline to fly direct from Atlanta to Cincinnati, which are both Delta hubs, and so it can charge what it likes. Two other airlines, meanwhile, operate flights between Atlanta and Dallas. This limits Delta’s pricing power. For anyone wishing to fly to Cincinnati, therefore, the best bet is to book the connecting flight and walk out of the airport in Cincinnati (the “hidden city”), simply failing to show up for the second half of the trip. 

bizarre: 奇想天外の 
leg: 1つの行程 

こうした単純な経済論理は時に奇想天外な結果を引き起こす。ある種の状況において、航空会社は複数行程のフライトに対して、同じルートの最初の工程だけよりも安い金額を設定する。例として、シンシナティの話を続けよう。これを書いている時点で、デルタのアトランタからシンシナティまでの2月6日の最安値の片道料金は252ドルだ。しかし、シンシナティ乗り継ぎ(同じ便で)アトランタからダラス・フォートワースまで行くには、わずか197ドルしかかからない。これは、アトランタとシンシナティがどちらもデルタのハブ空港であり、アトランタからシンシナティまでの直行便を飛ばせる唯一の航空会社で、そのためデルタは好きな価格を設定できるからだ。一方、他の2つの航空会社は、アトランタとダラス間のフライトを運航している。このことがデルタの価格決定力を制限している。それ故、シンシナティに飛びたい人にとって、最善の策は乗継便を予約し、シンシナティ(”hidden city”)で空港から出ていくことだ。そのため、後半の旅程に姿を見せることはしない。 



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インドネシアの政治 大きな期待 インドネシアの憲法裁判所はジョコ・ウィドドが次の大統領であることを承認した。 彼は手強い課題に直面している(5)

Democracy and decentralisation have not proved panaceas. Central-government handouts and lax oversight of spending have fuelled corruption at the local level. Voters are often bribed. Matters are just as bad higher up. Having promised to root out corruption when he was first elected in 2004, and despite the jailing of many officials for graft, Mr Yudhoyono’s administration, particularly in its second term, has been swamped by it.

just as:全く同じように 
higher up:上層部の人たち
root out:根絶する


Some say decentralisation has caused a grave decline in the rule of law. The writ of the central government now barely runs in some of the provinces, often with devastating consequences. Take deforestation—an important matter in what used to be one of the world’s most forested and bio-diverse countries. After decades of unchecked illegal logging, often to clear land for palm-oil plantations, Mr Yudhoyono surprised many by bravely announcing in 2010 that he would impose a two-year moratorium on forest-clearing. He extended it last year for a further two years. But the problem has got even worse. A paper published in June by Nature Climate Change, an academic journal, said Indonesia had overtaken Brazil as the country with the world’s highest rate of annual loss of primary, or old-growth, forest. Decentralisation could frustrate Jokowi, too. The big projects that are needed to revamp Indonesia’s infrastructure will require a plethora of local approvals by people who may not agree with his plans.

old-growth forest:原生林

非中央集権化は法の支配の深刻な後退を引き起こしていると言う人もいる。中央政府の令状は今やいくつかの県ではほとんど効力を発揮しておらず、しばしば悲惨な結果となっている。森林伐採は、世界で最も森林に覆われ、生物が多様だった国の1つとしては、重要な問題だった。パーム油のプランテーションを目的とした土地の開墾による制限のない違法な伐採が数十年間行われた後に、Yudhoyono氏は2010年に森林開拓に2年間の一時停止を課したことを果敢にも宣言したことは多くの人を驚かせた。彼は去年これをさらに2年間延ばした。しかし問題は悪化してさえいる。アカデミー雑誌のNature Climate Changeが7月に発行した冊子に、インドネシアは人間活動の影響を受けていない原生林の年間消失がブラジルを越して世界で最も多い国だったと書かれていた。非中央集権化はジョコウィをイライラさせているのかもしれない。インドネシアのインフラ改修を必要としている大きなプロジェクトでは、この計画に賛同しないと思われる地元住民による非常に多くの承認が必要となっている。

Mr Yudhoyono was an instinctive consensus builder. Jokowi will have to show leadership, starting with the selection of his cabinet. He will need all his courage to stand up to lobbying from the political parties that supported him; he needs to pick on merit, and avoid any hint of corruption. As a candidate Jokowi offered the welcome prospect of change. As the man in charge, he must be as good as his word.

stand up to:対抗する・に持ちこたえる
pick on:選ぶ、あら探しをする




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インドネシアの政治 大きな期待 インドネシアの憲法裁判所はジョコ・ウィドドが次の大統領であることを承認した。 彼は手強い課題に直面している(4)

Under Mr Yudhoyono, the centralised Suharto state has been replaced by almost its opposite, a highly decentralised system of administration. The semi-autonomous province of Aceh at the far west of the archipelago provides a striking example. Of all Indonesia’s cities, none has endured as baleful a recent history as Banda Aceh, the province’s capital. The city is coming up to the tenth anniversary of the tsunami that flattened the former sultanate on Boxing Day, 2004, killing about 167,000 people in Banda Aceh and the surrounding province. Before then Aceh had been embroiled in an almost 30-year struggle for self-rule with the Indonesian government that left tens of thousands dead. 

Boxing Day:ボクシング・デー(Boxing Day)は、イギリス・オーストラリア・ニュージーランド・カナダ・ケニア・香港・ナミビア・ベリーズなどの英連邦でよく見られる、キリスト教に由来した休日で、クリスマスの翌日の12月26日(日曜の場合はその翌日)、郵便配達人や使用人など日頃サービスを提供してくれている人たちに箱に入れたギフト(Christmas box)を贈る。

中央集権化されたSuhartoの政府が、Yudhoyono氏の下ではほぼ反対の非常に非中央主権化された行政システムに置き換わられた。群島の遥か西にあるAcehの半自主的な県は印象的な例だ。数あるインドネシアの都市の中でこの県の首都であるBanda Acehほど近年の惨めな歴史に長年わたって耐えてきたところはない。この都市は津波の10回忌を迎えようとしているが、それは2004年のボクシングデーに、以前はスルタンの国だったBanda Acehとその周囲の県を押し流し、約16万7000人の命を奪った。それ以前、Acehは数万人の死者を出したインドネシア政府と約30年間に及ぶ自治権をめぐる争いの渦中にあった。

Yet today there are surprisingly few reminders of this tumultuous past. Banda Aceh has not only been rebuilt, but, as many locals are keen to emphasise, it is better than before. The army has gone. Many of the former Aceh guerrillas are now legislators of Partai Aceh, the dominant party in the local parliament. The city was helped by a massive influx of international aid money immediately after the tsunami. But it has since prospered without such handouts, buoyed by the rest of the country’s rapid growth. The few physical reminders of Boxing Day 2004 survive only because they have been put to good use. One “tourist attraction” is a large fishing boat that was swept from its moorings onto the top of a house. “We are very opportunist,” confesses one Acehnese. 

put to good use:有効に・有益に使う

しかし今日、驚くべきことにこの動乱の過去を思い出させるものはほとんどない。Banda Acehは単に復興されたのではなく、多くの地元住民が熱心に強調するように、以前よりも良くなっている。軍は去って行った。かつてのAcehのゲリラ兵の多くは地元議会の最有力政党であるPartai Acehの議員になっている。この街は津波の後、迅速な多額の国際援助金の支援で助けられていた。しかしこの街は以来このような救済なしに繁栄してきており、この国の他の地域での急速な発展によって支えられている。2004年のボクシングデーを思い出させるものは、それらが有効利用するだけのために僅かに残されている。1つの「観光名所」は、艇泊所から家の屋根の上に流された巨大な漁船だ。「私たちはとても楽観的です。」とあるAcheの人が打ち明けた。

Other local governments have not been granted quite as much autonomy as Aceh, but they have still benefited from what Indonesians call pemekaran: a “blossoming” of democracy. District heads, or bupati, now command their own budgets and control their local schools and hospitals. Several even run their own football teams, complete with imported foreignplayers. Some analysts say Indonesia owes its unity to pemekaran, for it has allowed the conservative Muslims of Aceh as much as the more easy-going Balinese to express their unique cultural identities while staying loyal to the Javanese-dominated central government in Jakarta. 



A troubled legacy
Yet for all the country’s new wealth and self-confidence, Mr Yudhoyono will still leave office largely unloved. The World Bank says that half the population still lives on less than $2 a day. Beyond the prospering city centres, poverty is still endemic. (In Aceh, maternal mortality rose from 2011 to 2012.) As in other fast-developing countries, wealth inequality in Indonesia has risen steeply. 

for all:にもかかわらず
maternal mortality:母性死亡率(妊婦の死亡率)




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