アーメット・ダブトグルはEUとトルコの移民政策の立役者だが、解雇された。(2) 縁故資本主義目録 その集団は段階的に縮小する。 世界中で政界にコネのある大物が息詰まってきている。


Signs that Mr Davutoglu was fighting for his political life emerged last Friday when AK’s executive body stripped him of the right to appoint provincial party officials. Over the weekend, an anonymous blogger believed to be a member of Mr Erdogan’s inner circle suggested that the prime minister had reached his expiry date. Mr Davutoglu, the blogger alleged on a website named “The Pelican Brief”, had crossed his boss by criticising the arrests of academics and journalists and by declining to drum up support for Mr Erdogan’s executive presidency—and by giving an interview to The Economist last year. 

The Pelican Brief:『ペリカン文書』は、ジョン・グリシャムの同名原作小説をもとに1993年、アメリカで製作されたリーガル・サスペンスである。日本でのロードショーは1994年4月。
crossed his boss:You had better not cross your boss. 上司を怒らせない方がいいよ

On May 5th, a day after the two men met in Mr Erdogan’s 1,100-room palace, AK’s executive council gathered to settle the prime minister’s fate. It was not clear at press time whether he would resign immediately. But in the coming weeks, AK is expected to hold an extraordinary congress to elect Mr Davutoglu’s successor as party leader. Likely candidates include Binali Yildirim, the transport minister, and Berat Albayrak, the energy minister (who also happens to be Mr Erdogan’s son-in-law). 

at press time:印刷時には

The bookish Mr Davutoglu, a former foreign minister, may have quietly sparred with Mr Erdogan on occasion, but generally tried to play down divisions. His ouster suggests there is no tolerance left for opposition to the president inside his party. It also reveals the price that Mr Erdogan is willing to pay to pursue his agenda. Within hours of his meeting with the prime minister, the Turkish lira plummeted by almost 4% against the dollar, the biggest such drop since 2008. Fears spread that the EU, which had found in Mr Davutoglu a sensible interlocutor and a channel to bypass his abrasive boss, would lose its appetite for engaging with Turkey. 

generally :たいてい
play down:軽視する
lose one's appetite: 食欲[食べる気]をなくす、食べる気がしない、食欲がうせる[なくなる・減退する]、食が細る

Mr Erdogan appears not to care. No groundwork has been laid for Mr Davutoglu’s departure. To many AK supporters, who saw their prime minister propel the party to a thumping win in elections last autumn, his abrupt ouster seems puzzling. Ozer Sencar, the chairman of Metropoll, a polling company, said it shows Mr Erdogan wants a referendum on his executive presidency this year: “(Mr Davutoglu) presented an obstacle. He had to go.” 

thumping win:とても大きな勝利
propel :駆り立てる


Our crony-capitalism index
The party winds down
Across the world, politically connected tycoons are feeling the squeeze
May 7th 2016 | From the print edition

wind down:段階的に縮小する


TWO YEARS ago The Economist constructed an index of crony capitalism. It was designed to test whether the world was experiencing a new era of “robber barons”—a global re-run of America’s gilded age in the late 19th century. Depressingly, the exercise suggested that since globalisation had taken off in the 1990s, there had been a surge in billionaire wealth in industries that often involve cosy relations with the government, such as casinos, oil and construction. Over two decades, crony fortunes had leapt relative to global GDP and as a share of total billionaire wealth. 

robber baron:泥棒男爵とは、19世紀のアメリカ合衆国で蘇った、寡占もしくは不公正な商習慣の追求の直接の結果として、それぞれの産業を支配して莫大な私財を蓄えた実業家と銀行家を指した、軽蔑的な意味合いの用語。
gilded age:Gilded Age 《the 〜》金ピカ[金めっき]時代◆19世紀後半の、南北戦争が終結して人口が増加し、経済が史上最も高い成長率を記録した時代。◆【語源】マーク・トウェインとチャールズ・ダドリー・ワーナーの1873年の小説「金ピカ時代(The Gilded Age)」から。
cosy relation:馴れ合いの関係
relative to :に関連して・に対して

It may seem that this new golden era of crony capitalism is coming to a shabby end. In London Vijay Mallya, a ponytailed Indian tycoon, is fighting deportation back to India as the authorities there rake over his collapsed empire. Last year in Sao Paulo, executives at Odebrecht, Brazil’s largest construction firm, were arrested and flown to a court in Curitiba, a southern Brazilian city, that is investigating corrupt deals with Petrobras, the state-controlled oil firm. The scandal, which involves politicians from several parties, including the ruling Workers’ Party, is adding to pressure on Brazil’s president, Dilma Rousseff, who is facing impeachment on unrelated charges. 

shabby end:お粗末な結末
rake over :思い起こさせる

A Malaysian investment fund, 1MDB, that is answerable to the prime minister, is the subject of a global fraud probe. Supporters of Rodrigo Duterte, the front-runner to win the presidential election in the Philippines on May 9th, hope he will open up a feudal political system that has allowed cronyism to flourish. In China bosses of private and state-owned firms are now routinely interrogated as part of Xi Jinping’s purge of “tigers” (a purge that has left Mr Xi’s family well alone). Worldwide, tycoons’ offshore financial cartwheels have been revealed through the Panama papers. 

fraud probe:不正行為の調査
let well alone: 〔余計なことをせずに〕その[現状の]ままにしておく、現状でよしとしておく



swingby_blog at 05:33コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 


ロボットによる手術 誰がナイフを使うのか? (2) トルコの首相 穏健な政治家の場所はない アーメット・ダブトグルはEUとトルコの移民政策の立役者だが、解雇された。

For now, STAR remains a tool rather than a truly autonomous agent. But such autonomy is probably not far away. Dr Kim hopes, for example, that a souped-up version will soon be able to remove an appendix without any assistance from doctors. 

appendix :盲腸

STAR’s existence does, though, highlight two questions being raised more and more in what is an increasingly robotised society. These are: “will people trust robots with their lives?” and, “who is liable if something goes wrong?” 


The answer to the first will probably depend on the level of supervision the machines are subject to. It would not take much, for example, to turn airliners into drones, but passengers are reassured by the presence of a flight crew, so this is unlikely to happen soon. The same will probably be true of surgical robots, however good they become. In answer to the second, the lawyers are already circling. Intuitive Surgical, a maker of surgical robots based in Sunnyvale, California, has been on the receiving end of lawsuits alleging (which the firm denies) that surgeons were inadequately trained to use its machines or that the robots were defective. Machines may get the better of humans in the operating theatre, but the courtroom will also determine how fast they spread. 



Turkey’s prime minister
No room for moderates
Ahmet Davutoglu, architect of the EU-Turkey migrant deal, is forced out
May 7th 2016 | ISTANBUL | From the print edition


FOR Turkey’s prime minister, Ahmet Davutoglu, May 4th began on a good note. In the morning the European Commission, the European Union’s executive arm, endorsed a proposal to lift visa restrictions for Turks travelling to the bloc’s Schengen zone as of June. For Mr Davutoglu, who had made visa-free travel a key condition for enlisting Turkish help in stemming illegal migration to Europe, the relief was short-lived. By the evening, it was clear the prime minister was out of a job. 


The man who pulled the carpet from under his feet was the same one who appointed him less than two years ago: Turkey’s president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Tensions between the increasingly authoritarian Mr Erdogan and his prime minister have simmered for months. The two disagreed over the future of peace talks with Kurdish insurgents, and over Mr Erdogan’s plans to change the constitution to give the presidency executive powers, cementing his grip on government and his own Justice and Development (AK) party. 


They also clashed over the management of the economy, and Mr Erdogan’s crackdown on critics. (Its latest victims, two journalists, were sentenced to two years in jail last week for republishing a drawing from Charlie Hebdo, a French weekly, featuring a weeping Prophet Muhammad.) Mr Erdogan has accused his prime minister of stealing the spotlight. “During my time as prime minister it was announced that Schengen travel would come into force in October 2016,” he said recently, referring to the visa talks. “I cannot understand why bringing it forward by four months is presented as a triumph.” 




swingby_blog at 01:13コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 


ロボットによる手術 誰がナイフを使うのか? 機械がほとんど人の助けなしで手術を行う。

Robotic surgery
Who wields the knife?
A machine carries out an operation almost unaided
May 7th 2016 | From the print edition


THEY don’t drink, they don’t get tired and they don’t go on strike. To hospital managers, the idea of robots operating on patients without human intervention is an attractive one. To patients, though, the crucial question is, “are they better than human surgeons?” Surgery is messy and complicated. A routine operation can become life-threatening in minutes. 

in minutes:数分で

Such considerations have meant that the role of robots in operating theatres has been limited until now to being little more than motorised, precision tools for surgeons to deploy—a far cry from the smart surgical pods and “med-bays” of science fiction. But a paper published this week in Science Translational Medicine, by Peter Kim of the Children’s National Health System in Washington, DC, and his colleagues, brings the idea of real robot surgeons, operating under only the lightest of human supervision, a step closer. Though not yet let loose on people, it has successfully stitched up the intestines of piglets. 

operating theatres:手術室
far cry from:から程遠い
 let loose on:自由にやってのける
intestines of piglets:子豚の腸
med-bays:A Med-Bay, assumedly short for Medical Bay, is a bed or gurney-shaped device that humans can use to remedy any ailments or problems related to their health.

The Med-bay is seen frequently throughout the movie. The idea is that a human who is registered to use the Med-Bay simply has to lie down on it, and then the Med-Bay will automatically scan for any diseases, aliments, or conditions, and automatically rebuild the body to remove the problem. The Med-Bays are seen to be able to rebuild broken bones, aging hair or face wrinkles, even cancer and rebuilding a normally fatal injury as long as the brain remains intact.


To build their robodoc, dubbed the Smart Tissue Autonomous Robot (STAR), Dr Kim and his team fitted a robotic arm with an articulated suturing tool and a force sensor to detect the tension in the surgical thread during the operation. They equipped the arm with cameras that could create a three-dimensional image, to guide it as it deployed the tool, and also a thermal-imaging device to help distinguish between similar-looking tissues. A computer program written by the team controlled the arm. This had a repertoire of stitches, knots and manoeuvres that permitted it to plan and carry out a procedure, known as anastomosis, which involves sewing together two parts of a bodily tube. 

surgical thread :外科用の糸
thermal imaging device: 赤外線画像装置

No pig in a poke
Before each of the trial operations, the team anaesthetised a piglet and opened its abdomen to expose part of its small intestine. They then severed this and highlighted pertinent areas with fluorescent dye, to help guide the arm. Under a surgeon’s supervision, STAR sewed the piglet’s gut together again. In the four operations reported in the paper it carried out about 60% of the procedure without human intervention, and the rest with only minor adjustments to its stitches. Since the team submitted their results for publication, however, they say STAR has successfully completed the entire process unaided. 

pig in a poke: 《a 〜》〈米俗〉だまされて[自分の目で確かめずに]買った物、実体の分からない怪しげな物◆【語源】buy a pig in a pokeという表現から
severed :切断する
pertinent :適切な

Comparing STAR’s work with that of experienced surgeons operating both with and without the assistance of existing robotic tools, Dr Kim and his colleagues reckoned STAR’s stitches were more evenly spaced and the sutured gut less leaky. None of the pigs suffered complications. 


STAR did, it is true, take much longer than a human surgeon would to create the suture. It averaged 50 minutes for the operation, whereas a person would take about eight. But that will surely get faster. And even if STAR never quite matches a human being at work for speed, the better final product it seems to deliver would, if translated into regular clinical practice, reduce readmission rates. 

if tanslated onto:になれば・に変われば
regular clinical practice:通常の臨床診療
readmission rate:再入院率



swingby_blog at 22:03コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 


ギリシャの救済 ギリシャのユーロ圏離脱の恐れは現実的になくなってはいない。 緊急貸し出しへの瀬戸際政策が再び浮上してきている。

Bailing out Greece
The threat of Grexit never really went away
Brinkmanship over emergency loans resumes again
May 4th 2016 | Online extra


THE tagline of the film “My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2”, which was released in March, is “People change. Greeks don’t.” Whether any euro-zone finance ministers have seen the film, let alone detected any resemblance to their ongoing talks with the Greek government over its third bail-out, is unknown. But the renewed bickering about whether Greece is keeping to its end of the bargain, complete with threats of a snap election if its creditors don’t give more ground, has the air of a duff sequel.

let alone:言うまでもなく
keeping to its end of the bargain:一方の当事者として責任を果たす
snap election: 〔突然の議会解散によって実施される〕総選挙
give more ground:より譲歩する
air of a duff sequel:価値のない続編の様子

Greece badly needs the next dollop of the €86 billion ($99 billion) bail-out creditors promised it last summer, in exchange for promises of austerity and reform. But it will not get the money until the creditors complete a review of its progress, which has been dragging on since November. The government has scraped together enough cash (by raiding independent public agencies) to pay salaries and pensions in May, perhaps even in June. But by July 20th, when a bond worth more than €2 billion matures, the country once again faces default and perhaps a forced exit from the euro zone. The threat of Grexit is not exactly back; it never really went away.

dragging on:ダラダラと長引く
scrape together cash: 現金[資金]をかき集める

With a referendum on Britain’s EU membership in June and a possible flare-up of the refugee crisis as summer approaches, the last thing Europe needs is another Greek drama. The European Commission is thus in a mood for compromise. It emphasises that negotiations are “99%’’ complete. But the other creditor, the IMF, is less forgiving. With tax arrears in Greece rising and reforms constantly delayed, the fund has little faith that the programme’s target of a 3.5% primary budget surplus by 2018 can be achieved. It wants Greece to make a contingency plan to raise more money or cut spending further before it approves the next instalment of the bail-out.

little faith that:あまり信用しない

In April a meeting of euro-zone finance ministers, intended to approve Greece’s fiscal plans along with the pending disbursement, was cancelled at the last minute. Although negotiators had more or less agreed on a package of €5.4 billion (3% of Greek GDP) in austerity measures, they hit a deadlock over an extra €3.6 billion in contingency measures to be adopted if the primary surplus does not reach 3.5%. The Europeans seem content to have a woolly plan B, but Christine Lagarde, head of the fund, says it will “have to be legislated upfront, have to be credible, and have to be triggered with a degree of automaticity”. Greece’s finance minister, Euclid Tsakalotos, says this is constitutionally impossible.

contend to:喜んで〜する

In fact the biggest constraints are political, not legal. The contingency package would probably involve further cuts to pensions, a direct assault on the base of the ruling Syriza party. Alexis Tsipras, the prime minister, faces a revolt by 53 of his own MPs, led by Mr Tsakalotos. Greece’s main opposition party, New Democracy, now leads in the polls and has called for snap elections. It says it will vote neither for the €5.4 billion austerity package (because it is too tax-heavy and reform-light) nor for additional contingency measures.


The meeting of euro-zone finance ministers has been rescheduled for May 9th. Before that, negotiators on both sides will need to agree on the contingency plan. If they do so, the deal will have to be approved by the Greek parliament by May 24th, when the next finance ministers’ meeting takes place. If Mr Tsipras strikes a deal but cannot get it through parliament, a new election is likely. And several euro-zone governments must get parliamentary approval to sign off on any disbursement of bail-out funds. The potential pitfalls, in other words, are legion.

strikes a deal:合意する

The irony is that the IMF, for all its current intransigence, is the more forgiving of Greece’s creditors. It wants to reduce the primary-surplus target to 1.5% and to write off some of Greece’s debt. Such concessions are politically indigestible for euro-zone governments, especially Germany’s. The most likely solution, as always, is a fudge: an agreement that gives creditors just enough confidence to release the next slug of cash, without putting Greece’s finances on a sustainable footing or resolving the most heated disputes.

slug of:少量の

Deal or no deal, election or not, the economy is struggling. Banks are still zombies; many structural reforms (such as to the judiciary, labour and product markets) have been put off; and private investors continue to give Greece a wide berth. Yet other euro members do not want to talk about debt relief. Greeks are not the only ones, it seems, who do not change.

give a wide berth to: 〜から離れている、〜に近寄らない[近づかない・関わらない]◆【直訳】〜に広い操船余地(berth)を与える◆操船余地とは、船と船がぶつからないようにするためにあけておく余地(間隔)のこと。



swingby_blog at 05:28コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 



Mr Kim presumably hopes the congress will mark a formal consolidation of his own power. When he took over many outside analysts assumed he would merely be the Kim front for a ruling clique of more experienced thugs. In fact, he has ruthlessly purged the senior ranks of the party and army, even executing his uncle by marriage, Jang Song Taek, the regime’s main interlocutor with China. The congress may rubber-stamp his installation of loyalists in senior party positions. More of them are likely to be civilians rather than the generals who kept his father in power. It may also enshrine Mr Kim’s own ideas in party doctrine. This could involve a switch from his father’s songun, or “military first”, doctrine to his own “byungjin line”, of pursuing nuclear weapons and economic development in tandem. 

uncle by marriage:義理の叔父
 in tandem:縦一列になって・と歩調を合わせて

The power of wishful thinking
If this happens, optimists believe the congress may prove a turning-point. It is early enough in his rule for Mr Kim not to have to take responsibility for the regime’s many failures. He can, however, claim credit for its nuclear prowess. Having proved that North Korea matches the description he had written into the preamble to its constitution in 2012, as a “nuclear state and a militarily powerful state that is indomitable”, he can turn his attention to feeding his people and easing their poverty. And that would imply patching up relations with China, North Korea’s only ally and main economic lifeline, which after the North’s most recent transgressions has seemed more serious about enforcing sanctions. 

claim credit for:功績を強調する
preamble :序文
patch up:応急処置をする

leap day:うるう年

Peninsula of provocation: A timeline of clashes between North and South Korea 

It would also mean extending olive branches to other countries, particularly South Korea, which in February withdrew from the joint industrial complex at Kaesong, just north of the border. That marked the end of the South’s “sunshine” policy aimed at changing North Korea through engagement. Now Mr Kim himself may slowly let the sun in, adopting the market-oriented reforms and opening to the outside world that catapulted China to prosperity, and which its leaders have long urged on North Korea. 

extending olive branches:和平を申し出る
let the sun in:その太陽政策を認める
catapulted :飛び出す

It would make sense. In a reformed North Korea, Mr Kim would have more resources to buy the loyalty of those around him, and he might sleep easier. China has shown that economic development can be achieved without the party losing power. Since both China and the West fear his regime’s collapse into bloody chaos as much as its nuclear bellicosity, he would find willing helpers. Yet it is hard to see grounds for optimism in Mr Kim’s rule so far. He has shown no concern about antagonising the rest of the world, has promoted hardliners and has pursued the potential for nuclear warfare even more obsessively than his father. The congress may be less a turning-point than a dead end, saying to the world: this is North Korea today; live with it. 

shown no concern:に少しの心配の色を見せない
dead end:袋小路・手詰まり
 live with it:我慢する



swingby_blog at 07:33コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 


金属価格の大暴落 滅多にない会議を開催し、北朝鮮の与党はその存続のために式典を行わなければならない。  

Metal prices
Apr 30th 2016 | From the print edition


The Economist’s metals index has fallen by 46% from its peak in 2011, largely because of slowing demand in China. Supply disruptions caused occasional spikes: nickel prices rose in the first half of 2014 after Indonesia banned metal-ore exports and zinc prices jumped in 2015 after mine closures. Metals prices have rallied in the past few months, however, thanks to a weaker dollar and a credit surge in China. The price of iron ore, a steel-making ingredient, has jumped by 70% since December. The value of tin has increased because Indonesia, the world’s second-biggest producer, introduced regulations to halt illegal trade that also curbed exports; recent flooding has also restricted access to mining areas.

occasional spike:時折発生する急騰
credit surge:信用の拡大


Once in a lifetime
Convening a rare congress, all North Korea’s ruling party has to celebrate is its own survival
Apr 30th 2016 | From the print edition


THE last time North Korea’s ruling Workers’ Party, the KWP, held a national congress was in October 1980, when its present leader, Kim Jong Un, was not even born. The meeting’s main purpose was to formalise the party’s graduation from a traditional Marxist-Leninist dictatorship to a dynastic one. Mr Kim’s father, Kim Jong Il, was crowned as dauphin to his own father, Kim Il Sung, the country’s founding leader. The eldest Kim died in 1994 but, even in death, remains the country’s “eternal president”. Meanwhile party doctrine largely ditched Marx, Lenin and the rest in favour of Kim Il Sung’s own ideology of juche, or self-reliance (real meaning: distrust, confront and rob foreigners). Kim Jong Il ruled until his death in December 2011 without feeling the need ever to convene a party congress. Yet his son is preparing to preside over one, starting on May 6th. In the world’s most closed political system, it is not easy to work out why.  

jute philosophy: チュチェ(主体)思想◆「人民が革命と建設の主体である」という金日成の指導の基本理念より
self-reliance :自立

Precedent is no explanation. In 1980 five-yearly congresses were decreed. But a 35-year gap has opened since. The calendar imposes no more pressure on Kim Jong Un than it did on his father. Moreover, it will be embarrassing not to welcome foreign bigwigs. In 1980 177 delegates came from 118 countries, including Robert Mugabe, then Zimbabwe’s prime minister; the president of Guinea, Sekou Toure; and a Chinese delegation led by the late Li Xiannian, one of an “immortal” first generation of revolutionary leaders. The upcoming congress, it seems, will be a North Koreans-only affair. Kim Jong Un’s continuation of his father’s pursuit of a nuclear arsenal and the missiles to deliver it—most recently the claimed test of a submarine-launched ballistic missile on April 23rd—has isolated their country even further. An offer this week to halt nuclear testing in exchange for an end to annual American-South Korean military exercises was swiftly dismissed. The congress will highlight the flip side of juche. North Korea really is on its own. 

flip side:裏面・B面 
on its own:勝手に

Nor does the KWP have much to celebrate other than the claimed “success” (at best partial, say foreign experts) of its four nuclear tests, two of them under this third-generation Kim, with the most recent in January. A fifth seems imminent. Mr Kim has not yet inflicted on his people the kind of famine that killed hundreds of thousands under his father in the late 1990s. But just this month the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation produced a chilling report on persistent food shortages. It estimated that 10.5m people—two-fifths of the population—were undernourished and that 2.4m pregnant or breast-feeding women and children under five were at risk of malnutrition. Over three-quarters of North Koreans, it concluded, remain “food insecure”. 


Yet on top of all its other woes North Korea has been enduring a “70-day campaign of loyalty”, a propaganda countdown to the congress’s opening. Clearly Mr Kim thinks it important. Indeed, some scholars of North Korea, such as Hajime Izumi of Tokyo International University, think nothing has mattered more for him. They believe that flaunting strength through nuclear and missile tests is aimed at laying the groundwork for a self-congratulatory congress—never mind the disastrous impact such chest-thumping has on the country’s foreign relations. 

on top of all:さらにその上
Nothing matters more to me than: 私にとって何よりも大切なのは〜である
laying the groundwork:土台を作る・根回しをする



swingby_blog at 08:12コメント(0)トラックバック(0) 



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