2016年07月

2016年07月31日

ドナルドトランプ指名の奇妙な背景

The bizarre scene of Donald Trump’s nomination
Jul 20th 2016, 11:00 BY J.P.P. | CLEVELAND

bizarre:奇妙な

ドナルドトランプ指名の奇妙な背景

SHORTLY after Donald Trump was confirmed as the Republican nominee, a pair of men wearing straw boaters wandered around outside the convention centre, weighing up the merits of tacos versus hot dogs. A man wearing an elephant hat was being filmed by a woman on her mobile phone, while two women wearing red skirts with white elephants on them stood nearby. People held doors open for each other. This was a transformative moment in the history of one of the world’s great political parties, but it hardly seemed so to those enjoying Cleveland’s evening sunshine while the roll call of state delegates concluded inside. There was no Wagnerian soundtrack, just some snatches of KC and the Sunshine Band drifting out from the hall. This is how a big moment in history sounds. 

straw boater: 〔麦わらの〕ボーター・ハット、カンカン帽◆1890〜1920年ころに流行し、男女ともに夏の船遊び、ピクニック、テニスなどの必需品であった。
wandered:歩き回る
weighing up:念入りに検討する
filmed:撮影する
transformative:変革の
roll call:点呼
snatches:ところどころ
KC:カンザスシティ・ロイヤルズ(英語: Kansas City Royals、略称:KC)は、メジャーリーグベースボール(以下、MLB)アメリカンリーグ中地区所属のプロ野球チーム。本拠地はミズーリ州カンザスシティにあるカウフマン・スタジアム。



At the beginning of the convention, Donald Trump’s campaign manager said that his candidate was planning to copy Richard Nixon’s 1968 campaign, presenting himself as the law-and-order candidate. That election saw the birth of the Southern Strategy, which exploited white resentment after the Civil Rights Act. It saw violence at the Democratic convention in Chicago, the race riots in 11 mostly northern cities that accelerated the flight of whites to the suburbs, and protests against the Vietnam war. America in 2016 is not like America in 1968. Violent crime has fallen by more than half over the past 20 years, the economy is growing at a steady, unspectacular rate, illegal border crossings are at a low level, there are signs of racial progress for those who want to see them. Outside the convention, the violence that many predicted has yet to materialise. 

white resentment:白人の不満
unspectacular:見栄えのしない
flight:群れ

The country described within the Quicken Loans Arena is very different. It is a lawless, borderless place, threatened by terrorists and run by crooks. The most memorable moments of the first evening came in painful speeches given by bereaved parents, whose children had been killed by illegal immigrants or by terrorists in Libya. “I blame Hillary Clinton personally for the death of my son,” said one. This stuff was interspersed with bizarre moments from some formerly famous people, notable only for their willingness to say nice things about the nominee. “Let’s make America America again,” implored Scott Baio, an actor from “Happy Days”, which broadcast its final episode in 1984. A former underwear model went from praising Mr Trump on stage to declaring in a TV studio that Barack Obama was a Muslim. 

While all this was going on, Mr Trump gave interviews that drew attention away from his own convention. Even when he is the star of the show, it seems, he cannot bear it when someone else’s face is on screen. 

クイッケン・ローンズ・アリーナは、アメリカ合衆国オハイオ州クリーブランドに位置する屋内競技場。
crooks:泥棒・犯罪者
bereaved:最近家族を亡くした
interspersed:散りばめられている
bizarre:突飛な
implored:懇願する

日曜日。トランプが共和党の大統領候補に指名される時の情景を述べている。いかにもアメリカらしい光景だ。Richard Nixonの時の公民権法ができた時の白人の不満を表したニクソンのSouthern Strategyをコピーしていると書いている。

昨日は海野塾と懇親会があった。今日は朝から新しい事務所の見学がある。狭いところだが、荷物を置くだけだ。午後は来週の研修の資料のレビューがある。今日も忙しい。ではまた明日。

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2016年07月30日

数少ない超正統派のユダヤ人がイスラエルのIT産業で成功している。 なぜこの超正統派の企業立ち上げが不足しているのか?

Few ultra-Orthodox Jews make it in Israel’s tech industry
Why Haredi startups are in short supply
Jul 20th 2016 | Middle East and Africa

ultra-Orthodox:超正統派、ハレーディー(ム)(חֲרֵדִים Haredi または Charedi Judaism, ultra- Orthodox Judaism)とは、ユダヤ教の宗派の一部。ユダヤ教正統派の中でも、特に東部ヨーロッパに由来する伝統的な形態とその人々に対する通俗的な呼称。
Haredi:上に同じ
make it in:において成功する

数少ない超正統派のユダヤ人がイスラエルのIT産業で成功している。
なぜこの超正統派の企業立ち上げが不足しているのか?

A GROUP of ultra-Orthodox (or Haredi) Jews arriving at a meeting recently at Facebook’s Israeli headquarters were initially barred from entering by the security guard. “He couldn’t believe we actually had a business reason for being there,” said one participant. “He thought we wanted to hold a demonstration”. 

hold a demonstration:デモをやる



The altercation was a sign of how rare it is to see black-garbed Haredi Israelis in the shining development centres of the startup nation. Some 300,000 people, or about 8% of the Israeli workforce, are employed in the country’s burgeoning high-tech industry. The industry has sucked in talent so quickly that it is now constrained by a shortage of qualified engineers and programmers and is looking abroad. Yet a large and almost untapped pool of talent lies close to home. Only 2% of Israel’s tech employees are ultra-Orthodox Jews, although the community makes up nearly 10% of the population (similarly just 3% of tech employees are Arab, despite making up about 20% of the total). And of those ultra-Orthodox Jews who are employed by tech companies, about two-thirds are women who work mainly in call centres for low pay. 

altercation:口論
black-garbed:黒い服を着た
burgeoning:急成長の
constrained:制約される
close to home:手近なところに

The main reason there are so few Haredi techies is because most ultra-Orthodox men have only a very rudimentary education in mathematics and English. Although they spend years in a yeshiva, a religious seminary, most of their time goes on studying the Torah. Those few yeshiva graduates who do have the right skills to get tech jobs still struggle to hear about them or get recommended for jobs because they are not plugged into the networks of developers and entrepreneurs who often know one another from their days in the army or university, two institutions that have very few Haredis. Another impediment is that many senior rabbis have forbidden their followers from having internet in their homes or owning smartphones because of the temptations to sin that they may be exposed to. 

rudimentary:初歩的な
seminary:神学校
impediment:障害
rabbis:神父

The barriers are highest for those who want to fulfil the Israeli dream of founding their own startup company. “Even when I succeeded in getting a meeting with potential investors, they looked at me as if I was an alien,” says Moshe Friedman, who at the age of thirty, left his yeshiva and, with friends, developed an app to simplify video-editing. After seeing how tough it was for religious Jews to get a foothold in the tech industry, he went on to set up Kamatech, a company working to place Haredi employees with some of the largest tech firms in Israel, and to create a network for entrepreneurs from the community. 

So far he has connected eight Haredi startups with established tech firms. The startups have raised more than $6m in initial investments and employ seventy people. That might sound like an impressive start, but when compared to the $4.5 billion raised by Israeli startups in 2015, it shows how much ground Haredi entrepreneurs still have to make up. 

ground:基礎を教え込む

土曜日。ユダヤ人の超正統派はわずかしかIT産業にいない。彼らは神学を勉強するがこうした領域に関心を持っていない。しかしながら、今イスラエルはIT産業の人材が不足している。という記事だ。

昨日は井川さんの昼食会に行った。神楽坂のいいお店だった。会費は3500円だったが、それなりの価値はあった。最近は引越しの整理で忙しく、仕事があまりできない。今日は1日、海野塾だ。ではまた明日。

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2016年07月29日

イスラエル、ロシア、シリアに対してのエルドアン大統領の態度が突然、再設定された。(2) 今やヨーロッパの方が移民よりも英国にとって大きな関心がある。

トルコが関係改善をしようとしている。
突然、敵ではなく友人を作り出した。
イスラエル、ロシア、シリアに対してのエルドアン大統領の態度が突然、再設定された。(2)

Turkey’s foreign-policy reset, assuming it continues, will not be easy. To restore ties with Egypt, Mr Erdogan and his Justice and Development party will have to cut back their support for the scores of Muslim Brothers who fled to Istanbul after a deadly crackdown by President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi in 2013. For a government that has spent years marketing itself as the voice of oppressed Muslims worldwide, this will be difficult. Syria is an even bigger problem. To anti-regime rebels bombed by Russian and Syrian jets, a Turkish U-turn on Mr Assad will seem like a betrayal. 

scores:非常に多くの

Turkey’s policy in the Middle East since 2011, once described by an adviser to Mr Erdogan as “precious loneliness”, has failed to pay dividends. Instead, it has left the country exposed to IS attacks, a renewed war in its Kurdish south-east, and tensions with allies. It is no surprise that Turkey has turned more genial; it needs all the friends it can get. 

pay dividends:身を結ぶ
genial:愛想の良い

こうしたトルコの外交政策の変更は容易ではない。ムスリムブラザーフッドへのトルコ国内での保護はどうなるのか?イララム教徒への今後の支援はどうするのか?アサドに対しての対応の変更をどう処理するのか?今後ISISへの対応、クルドとの戦争、同盟諸国との関係が課題として残されている。方向としてはまずくない。

Europe is now a bigger concern for Britain than immigration
Jul 20th 2016, 16:47 BY THE DATA TEAM

今やヨーロッパの方が移民よりも英国にとって大きな関心がある。

FOR the first time in two decades the European Union is the biggest concern for voters, according to the July 2016 Economist/Ipsos MORI issues index. Ever since the referendum on EU membership was announced, Europe has been an increasingly important issue for Brits. But after the referendum result, worries about Europe jumped to their highest level since 1997 and, in doing so, overtook fears about health care and immigration. 

overtook:をしのぐ


NHS: 【略】 =National Health Service 〈英〉国民健康保険、国民医療[保健]サービス◆1946年の国民健康保険法により1948年に開始された、原則として無料で医療サービスが受けられる制度。

In the build-up to the referendum Remain campaigners were hopeful that a new surge in registrations would help their cause. Many of the new voters were young and, supposedly, more likely to plump for Britain to stay in the EU. But data from the Electoral Commission reveals that, in the first six months of this year, those registering to vote were more likely to hail from Eurosceptic areas than Europhile ones. Small wonder the Brexiters won by a margin of more than 1m voters. 

registrations :選挙人名簿への登録
plump:元に戻る
hail:大量に浴びせる
small wonder that: 〔that以下〕だとしてもそれほど不思議ではない[驚くには当たらない]
by a margin of:の票差で

金曜日。今日はこれまで。この表は英国の関心が最近どう変わってきたかを示している。移民とか健康医療よりもヨーロッパに関心が高くなっている。若い人たちは残留に自信を持っていたが、今年の前半でEU撤退派が増大してきていた。そんな記事だ。

昨日はKHCの木戸脇さんと会食。2時からは骨董品とか書道用具を貸しトランクに持って行った。今日の昼は神楽坂で、井川さんのグループの会食がある。今日は久しぶりに1日本が書けそうだ。ではまた明日。

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2016年07月28日

トルコが関係改善をしようとしている。 敵ではなく友人を作り出した。 イスラエル、ロシア、シリアに対してのエルドアン大統領の態度が突然、再設定された。(2)

Mr Yildirim’s government had every reason to bury the hatchet with Moscow. Sanctions imposed by the Kremlin last autumn have hurt. Turkish exports to Russia dropped by 60% in the first half of the year; the number of Russian travellers to Turkey was down more than 90% in May compared with last year’s figures, largely as a result of a ban on tourism. Russian operators have recently restarted flights to Turkey after an eight-month hiatus. Tourists who spilled out of a Rossiya Airlines flight last weekend in Antalya, a Turkish resort town, were feted with champagne and flowers. 

bury the hatchet:まさかり・仲直りする
hiatus:中断
feted:もてなしを受ける

Meanwhile, Russia’s intervention in Syria has blocked Turkish ambitions to play regional kingmaker. With its Syrian proxies bloodied by regime forces, Russian jets and the jihadist fighters of Islamic State (IS), Turkey risks being cut out of any prospective agreement over the country’s future. By cozying up to the Russians, Western diplomats say, it hopes to win back a seat at the table. 

kingmaker:実力者
cozying up to:の機嫌をとる
win back a seat:席を取り戻す

Yet reconciliation with the Kremlin can only go so far. Turkey and Russia remain at odds in the Caucasus and in the Black Sea, which the president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, recently described as on the verge of becoming “a Russian lake”. Turkey also resents what it sees as Russia’s habit of allowing home-grown jihadists to travel to Syria. Such concerns have grown since an attack by IS militants killed 45 people at Istanbul’s main international airport on June 28th. Two of the suicide bombers involved, as well as several suspected accomplices, turned out to be Russian nationals. “They’re not stopping these people,” complains a Turkish official, referring to militants from the northern Caucasus who regularly surface Turkey’s border with Syria. “It’s placing an enormous burden on our shoulders.” 

reconciliation:和解
can only go so far:その程度でしかない
resents:に憤慨する
accomplice:共犯者

It is in Syria that the new charm offensive faces its biggest test. Turkish officials continue to hold the country’s president, Bashar al-Assad, responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Syrians, but realise that efforts to topple him are unlikely to succeed anytime soon. Turkey already seems less concerned with Mr Assad than with preventing Kurdish insurgents from gaining a permanent foothold in the country’s north. The rapprochement with Russia means it is even more likely to ditch its support for regime change. “After this Assad will no longer be a red line,” says Osman Bahadir Dincer of the International Strategic Research Organisation, a think-tank in Ankara. 

charm offensive:人気取り作戦
ditch:捨てる

The departure of Turkey’s former prime minister, Ahmet Davutoglu, has served as an excuse to push ahead with changes that were long overdue. Mr Davutoglu was credited with shaping his country’s foreign policy over the past decade, and foreign observers viewed him as a moderate who restrained Mr Erdogan’s pugnacious instincts. Ironically, since he was booted from office in May after a series of spats with Mr Erdogan, Turkey’s adventurist streak has given way to pragmatism, at least in the Middle East. 

long overdue:長年の懸案だった
credit:評価される
pugnacious:好戦的な
booted:クビにする
spats:意見の不一致・口論
streak:傾向
given way to:に取って代わる

木曜日。ロシアとの関係改善によって、観光と貿易が戻ってきたが、アンカラの自爆テロにはロシア人もいた。トルコがロシアの裏庭になることを懸念していて、アサドとの敵対関係は放棄せざるを得ないようだ。Davutogluがエルドアンの好戦的な態度を収めてきたが、Yildirimが首相になって、皮肉なことだが、少なくとも中東においては実践的になってきた。

昨日に昼は森さんと会食した。昨晩アクセンチュアの戦略グループの仲間の同窓会があると聞いたので、私の著書を60部スタッフに持って行ってもらった。昨晩は海野塾があった。懇親会も11時まであった。楽しい1日だった。今日の昼は木戸脇さんとの会食があり、2時から引越しがある。荷物をトランクルームに預ける。整理すると大変な荷物だ。いくら捨ててもなんでこんなに荷物がるのか不思議だ。親父の家具屋を処分した時も一緒だった。膨大な先祖の宝物を全部捨てた。写真だけ残した。そういうものだ。ではまた明日。

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2016年07月27日

南シナ海 崖っぷちからの復活か 中国政府 中国が手厳しい国際判決を認めるべき理由(2) トルコが関係改善をしようとしているがそれは何を意味するのか?

That would be hugely provocative. Although America is deeply reluctant to risk a conflict, President Barack Obama is thought in March to have warned his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, that any move on Scarborough Shoal would be seen as threatening American interests (the Philippines is a treaty ally). For China to call its bluff in a sea that carries $5.3 trillion in annual trade would be reckless and irresponsible. 

provocative:挑発的な
thought:考え
bluff:call A's bluff A〈人〉にやれるものならやってみろと言う.
reckless:無謀な
irresponsible:無責任な

There is a better way. China could climb down and, in effect, quietly recognise the court’s ruling. That would mean ceasing its island-building, letting other countries fish where UNCLOS allows and putting a stop to poaching by its own fishermen. It would have good reason: its prestige and prosperity depend on a rules-based order. It would be in China’s interests to secure peace in its region by sitting down with the Philippines, Vietnam and other South-East Asian neighbours and trying to resolve differences. Right now those countries, and America, should avoid action that will needlessly enrage China, and instead give it a chance to walk back from the edge. 

poaching:侵入する
prestige:威信
enrage:ひどく怒らせる

中国がこの判決に従うべきだと言っている。アジアの関係諸国だけでなく、アメリカを敵に回すことになる。そうしたことが中国にとっていいわけがないと言っている。果たして、このエコノミストの意見通りになるのだろうか。日本人は物事を白黒はっきりつけたがるが、中国人は灰色のままで何とも思わない。そうした寛容さが日本人には必要だ。

What is the Turkish for rapprochement?
Turkey is suddenly making friends, not enemies
President Erdogan’s attitudes to Israel, Russia and Syria have undergone a sudden reset
Jul 15th 2016 | ISTANBUL | Europe

rapprochement:和解・関係改善
undergone:を受ける
reset:再設定

トルコが関係改善をしようとしているがそれは何を意味するのか?
トルコは突然、敵ではなく友人を作り出した。
イスラエル、ロシア、シリアに対してのエルドアン大統領の態度が突然、再設定された。

TURKEY’s newly installed prime minister, Binali Yildirim, has dusted off a time-honoured formula for dealing with his country’s troublesome neighbours: turn down the rhetoric and act nicely. “Our most important foreign-policy goal is to increase the number of friends,” he said in a speech on July 11th. “There is no reason for us to quarrel with Iraq, Syria, Egypt; with the countries of this region.” 

dusted:埃を払う
time-honoured:長年の
quarrel:諍い



Mr Yildirim has got off to a good start. In a single day last month, Turkey agreed to restore ties with Israel, with which it has been at odds since 2010, and apologised to Russia for bringing down a jet that veered into its airspace in November after a bombing run over Syria. Officials from the ruling party have since raised hopes of progress in peace talks in Cyprus, divided since 1974 between an internationally recognised Greek south and a Turkish-occupied north. They have also floated a cautious opening with Egypt and a rethink of Turkey’s botched Syria policy. After the Arab Spring of 2011, Turkey rushed headfirst into the flames that engulfed the Middle East, backing the Muslim Brothers in Egypt and Islamist insurgents in Syria. Having been burned, it now appears to be running to safety. 

at odds:不和で
veered :方向を変える
floated:流れる・提案する
botched:やりそこなう
headfirst:頭から先に・大急ぎで
engulfed:を完全に変える
 
水曜日。今日はこれまで。トルコが対外的な政策を急遽、和平の方向に転換しだした。イスラエル、ロシア、シリア、ギリシャとの軋轢の和解に乗り出した。ただし、この記事はトルコのクーデターは起こる直前のものだ。だからと言って内容が変わるものではないが。

昨日の昼は藤田さんの紹介で同友会で講演をさせていただいた。今日の昼は元上司の森さんとの会食がある。夜は海野塾がある。ではまた明日。

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2016年07月26日

南シナ海 崖っぷちからの復活か 中国政府 中国が手厳しい国際判決を認めるべき理由

The South China Sea
Come back from the brink, Beijing
Why China should accept a damning international ruling
Jul 16th 2016 | From the print edition

damning:手厳しい

南シナ海
崖っぷちからの復活か 中国政府
中国が手厳しい国際判決を認めるべき理由

THE aggression that China has shown in the past few years in its vast territorial grab in the South China Sea has terrified its neighbours and set it on a collision course with America, long the guarantor of peace in East Asia. This week an international tribunal thoroughly demolished China’s vaguely defined claims to most of the South China Sea. How Beijing reacts to this verdict is of the utmost geopolitical importance. If, in its fury, China flouts the ruling and continues its creeping annexation, it will be elevating brute force over international law as the arbiter of disputes among states. China’s bullying of its neighbours greatly raises the risks of a local clash escalating into war between the century’s rising superpower and America, the current one. The stakes could hardly be higher. 

aggression:侵略
grab:横領もの・掴み取る
terrified:怯えさせる
collision course with:と衝突必至である
guarantor:保証人
demolished:覆す
verdict:判定
of utmost importance:最重要である
fury:激怒
flout:無視する
ruling:判決
creeping:コソコソする
annexation:併合
brute:野蛮な
arbiter:仲裁者
play for high stakes: 大金を賭ける; 一か八かの手段に出る

The ruling by the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, in response to a case brought by the Philippines, is firm, clear and everything China did not want it to be (see article). The judges said that the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) should determine how the waters of the South China Sea are divided among countries, not China’s ill-explained “nine-dash line” which implies the sea is Chinese. None of the Spratly Islands in the south of the sea, claimed (and occupied) by several countries including China, can be defined as islands that can sustain human life, they ruled. This means no country can assert an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extending up to 200 nautical miles around them. 

The court had no power to decide who owns which bits of land in the South China Sea. But the judges said that by building on rocks visible only at low tide, and thus not entitled under UNCLOS to any sovereign waters, China had encroached illegally into the Philippines’ EEZ. The court also said China had violated UNCLOS by blocking Philippine fishing boats and oil-exploration vessels and that Chinese ships had acted dangerously and unlawfully in doing so. Moreover, China’s island-building had caused “severe harm” to the habitats of endangered species, and Chinese officials had turned a blind eye to Chinese poaching of them. 

encroached:侵害する
habitats:生息地
endangered:絶滅危機に瀕した
poaching:侵入する

For China, this is a humiliation. Its leaders have called the proceedings illegal. Its huge recent live-fire exercises in the South China Sea imply that it may be planning a tough response. This could involve imposing an “Air Defence Identification Zone” of the kind it has already declared over the East China Sea. Or China might start building on the Scarborough Shoal, which it wrested from the Philippines in 2012 after a stand-off between the two countries’ patrol boats. 

humiliation:屈辱・恥をかくこと
proceedings:訴訟
live-fire exercises:実弾射撃訓練
stand-off :行き詰まり
wrested from:から奪い取る

火曜日。今日はこれまで。中国はハーグの常設仲裁裁判所の判定を無視した。この裁判所は中国が主張している九段線を否定した。中国は国際海洋法条約に違反しているという判決だ。フィリピンのEEZを侵略していて、占領した島嶼への開発によって絶滅危機にある生物に対しても悪影響をもたらしている。スカボロショールにたいしてもそのうちに建造物を作り出すかもしれない。という批判をこの記事はしている。

昨日の朝は朝会があった。昼はインタートレードの内藤さんとの会食。今日は2時半に目が覚めてしまったが、昼には同友会での講演がある。楽しみにしている。ではまた明日。

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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

スウィングバイ株式会社
代表取締役社長

アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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海野塾のイベントはFacebookのTeamSwingbyを参照ください。 またスウィングバイは以下のところに引っ越しました。 スウィングバイ株式会社 〒108-0023 東京都港区芝浦4丁目2−22東京ベイビュウ803号 Tel: 080-9558-4352 Fax: 03-3452-6690 E-mail: clyde.unno@swingby.jp Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/clyde.unno 海野塾: https://www.facebook.com TeamSwingby
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