候補者が外交政策を議論しているとその絵空事に無気力感が伴う。(2) 政治家はいつも嘘をついて来た。彼らが完全に真実を置き去りにしてしまうと何か問題があるのか?

There is a faint element of awkwardness when Democrats play hawk. The air force reservist chosen to introduce Mrs Clinton in Tampa was a shy former boss of an aircraft maintenance squadron, rather than a bullet-chewing warrior-type. In the crowd, Thomas Abel, a retired geologist sporting a “Vietnam Veteran” baseball cap at the Clinton rally, loyally condemned Mr Trump as frighteningly unpredictable. But he also admitted that he does not usually wear a veteran’s hat or other signs of war service, and chose his headgear to make the point that not all ex-soldiers are Republicans. Another veteran at the Tampa rally, Laura Westley, a graduate of the West Point academy for army officers who took part in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, says that ex-soldiers, like all voters this year, are sharply divided by education and gender. “There’s a big divide between officers and enlisted,” she says, with rank-and-file troops stirred by Mr Trump’s talk of “fighting and winning”. Mrs Clinton’s use of an insecure e-mail system as Secretary of State enrages many fellow West Pointers, she admits, who insist that, had they done the same, “they’d have lost their security clearance.” 

bullet-chewing:To "bite the bullet" is to endure a painful or otherwise unpleasant situation that is seen as unavoidable
security clearance:機密情報取り扱い許可・アクセス権限

Mr Trump held his own military-themed campaign events this week, blending vague promises to increase defence spending with fact-trampling claims about a dangerous world which fails to “respect” America. Quizzed on foreign policy at a forum in Virginia Beach, Mr Trump seemed to believe that North Korea will “soon” have an aircraft-carrier (which is news to Korea-watchers) but that he will “very simply” oblige China to rein in North Korea. Turning to the fight against IS, he suggested that finding common cause with Russia against Islamic extremism would be “nice” and work better than Mrs Clinton’s tough talk about President Vladimir Putin, adding: “Putin looks at her and he laughs.” 


Addressing supporters in North Carolina, Mr Trump abruptly backed away from repeated boasts that he has a “foolproof” plan to defeat IS, which he is keeping secret to remain “unpredictable” and avoid tipping off the enemy. Mr Trump now says that, within 30 days of becoming president, he would ask “top generals” to hand him a plan for “soundly and quickly defeating” the extremist network. His campaign unveiled endorsements from 88 retired generals and admirals, prompting Team Clinton to release a list of 95 former generals and admirals who back her, and to note that the Republican nominee in 2012, Mitt Romney, found 500 flag officers to endorse him. 

backed away from:取り下げる
tipping off:内報する・情報が漏れる 
flag officer:海軍将官

A televised forum in New York, hosted by NBC News and the Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America, a charity, pointed up the downsides of Mrs Clinton’s extensive record. A Republican member of the audience charged that she had “corrupted” national security by mishandling e-mails at the State Department, and a Democrat asked sceptically about her “hawkish” foreign policy. Mr Trump played a strongman who is above mere details, declaring that under Mr Obama “the generals have been reduced to rubble” and that America has “the dumbest foreign policy”. Asked about praise from Mr Putin, he said the Russian president: “has very strong control over his country,” while Mr Obama runs a “divided country”—as if democracy is rather a nuisance. He vowed to rebuild a “depleted” military while being “very, very cautious” about using it. At its core, Mr Trump’s pitch is simplistic, chin-jutting, isolationism with a strong dose of wishful thinking. 

dumbest:dumbest of the dumb 《the 〜》〈話〉ばかの中でも一番のばか、ばか中のばか
strong dose:強烈な取り込み


Post-truth politics
Art of the lie
Politicians have always lied. Does it matter if they leave the truth behind entirely?
Sep 10th 2016 | From the print edition 


CONSIDER how far Donald Trump is estranged from fact. He inhabits a fantastical realm where Barack Obama’s birth certificate was faked, the president founded Islamic State (IS), the Clintons are killers and the father of a rival was with Lee Harvey Oswald before he shot John F. Kennedy. 


Mr Trump is the leading exponent of “post-truth” politics—a reliance on assertions that “feel true” but have no basis in fact. His brazenness is not punished, but taken as evidence of his willingness to stand up to elite power. And he is not alone. Members of Poland’s government assert that a previous president, who died in a plane crash, was assassinated by Russia. Turkish politicians claim the perpetrators of the recent bungled coup were acting on orders issued by the CIA. The successful campaign for Britain to leave the European Union warned of the hordes of immigrants that would result from Turkey’s imminent accession to the union. 

stand up:反抗する
perpetrators :犯人
warned of:を警告する

If, like this newspaper, you believe that politics should be based on evidence, this is worrying. Strong democracies can draw on inbuilt defences against post-truth. Authoritarian countries are more vulnerable. 



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Brexitが本当に意味するものは何か? Theresa Mayの大臣たちは慎重にしてきている。(2) 下水管から潜水艦まで 候補者が外交政策を議論しているとその絵空事に無気力感が伴う。

These interventions worry Tory Brexiteers, who fret that having won a famous victory in June, they could lose the war. Their fear is that, given the choice, Mrs May and Mr Hammond will lean more to staying in the single market than to taking back full control of migration, money and laws. Mr Davis said this week that having access to the single market was not the same as being a member of it, and added that giving up border control to secure membership was an “improbable” outcome. But he was slapped down when Mrs May’s spokeswoman said the remark was only Mr Davis’s personal opinion. He also talked of retaining as much of the status quo as possible, not least in areas like security and foreign-policy co-operation. 

slapped :ひどく批判する
not least:とりわけ

The case for staying in the single market is simple: economists say this will minimise the economic damage from Brexit. A “hard” Brexit that involves leaving the single market without comprehensive free-trade deals with the EU and third countries would mean a bigger drop in investment and output. Brexiteers claim that many countries want free-trade deals and the economy is proving more robust than Remainers forecast. Michael Gove, a leading Brexiteer and former justice secretary, scoffed that soi-disant experts predicting economic doom had “oeuf on their face”. 

economic doom:経済的破滅

Yet Mrs May is less complacent, acknowledging that it will not be “plain sailing” for the economy. Domestic business and financial lobbies are pressing to stay in the single market. As for trade deals, although she won warm words at the G20 summit from Australia’s prime minister, Malcolm Turnbull, she was told firmly by Barack Obama and others that bilateral deals with Britain would not be a priority. The climate for free-trade deals is not propitious these days, and Mr Fox’s department is bereft of experienced trade negotiators. 

plain sailing:順調な航海

Mrs May has ruled out an early election and a second referendum. She refuses to provide a “running commentary” on her Brexit plans. And she insists she can invoke Article 50 without a parliamentary vote. Yet she is being urged by some to delay, since it would set a two-year deadline for Brexit that can be extended only by unanimity among EU leaders. In a thoughtful paper for the think-tank Open Europe, Andrew Tyrie, chairman of the Treasury committee, says the government should first decide what sort of Brexit it wants, adding that its leverage is greater before it pulls the trigger. He suggests waiting until the French election in the spring or even the German one in September. 

ruled out:認めない
running commentary:状況変化の実況解説

Yet Mrs May might not be allowed to wait by her own party, let alone by fellow EU leaders eager to get Brexit out of the way before the European elections in mid-2019. The phoney war may soon turn hotter. 

let alone:まして〜ない
get Brexit out of the way:Brexitの邪魔にならないようにする


Sewers to submarines
Dullness confronts fantasy when the candidates debate foreign policy
Sep 10th 2016 | TAMPA | From the print edition



HILLARY CLINTON used flag-waving speeches in Florida and North Carolina this week, and a military-themed television forum in New York, to accuse her Republican rival, Donald Trump, of talking down the armed forces and failing to cherish the military alliances that underpin America’s global standing. Mrs Clinton’s hawkish instincts are sincere: several times as Secretary of State from 2009-13, she was readier to use force as a tool of geopolitics than was her boss, Barack Obama. 

talking down:見下す

But politics also explains her focus on whether Mr Trump has the temperament to be commander-in-chief. Recent opinion poll averages have tightened, suggesting that Mrs Clinton has lost as much as half of the roughly eight-point lead that she opened up after the national conventions in July, and that a fifth of voters are undecided, essentially because they dislike both candidates. With millions of Republicans, notably those with college educations, expressing distaste for Mr Trump, the Democrats have much to gain from casting the property developer as a menace to America and the world. 


A speech in Tampa was billed by the Clinton campaign as making a case that their nominee knows how to keep America safe, while Mr Trump is unfit to be commander-in-chief. Alas her address was lacklustre and rambling, ranging from education policy to the importance of infrastructure (“what about our water systems, our sewer systems?”) before reaching foreign policy. The crowd did its bit, cheering lustily as she recalled urging the president to launch the raid that killed Osama bin Laden in 2011 (“You go girl!” shouted a woman). Mrs Clinton scolded Mr Trump for being “very loose in his talk” about when nuclear weapons should be used, and for saying that as president he would order the use of torture, which she said would imperil Americans worldwide. 




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The implications of this latest coalition spat could go further than a morning of traffic jams. The uneasy relationship between the Jewish state and the Jewish religion has been regulated since the late 1940s by an unofficial arrangement between the more secular types and the devout minority. In essence this has meant that while Israelis are nominally free to choose to live their lives largely free from religious coercion (except from marriage and divorce which are the sole preserve of the official rabbinate), the state’s official and visible functions respect the dictates of traditional Jewish law. So, while Israelis can drive their cars or catch a plane from Ben Gurion airport on their holy day of rest, public bus companies, Israel Rail and the national flag-carrier, El Al, must cease services from sundown on Friday afternoon until nightfall on Saturday. 

coercion :強制

Haredi politicians have routinely turned a blind eye at necessary maintenance work and upgrades done over weekends on transport infrastructure, as is also the case with other essential services such as the power grid and the health system. There is a tacit understanding that for Israel to have a Western-level standard of living, parts of the economy have to be allowed to continue working seven days a week. Why the change? One reason is the emergence of an ultra-Orthodox online media, which has over the last few months been lambasting its elected representatives for allowing “desecration of the Sabbath”. This has forced them to abandon their attitude of plausible deniability and demand an end to weekend maintenance work. 


Many of Israel’s previous prime ministers have relied on religious allies to keep their coalition governments afloat; Mr Netanyahu’s majority is so slender that he, too, must depend on them. But continuing to maintain the balance between the strictures of an ancient religion and the demands of a 21st century economy is proving increasingly difficult—even for a political operator of Mr Netanyahu’s calibre. 



So what will Brexit really mean?
Theresa May’s ministers are carefully avoiding specific answers. But she is systematically disowning many of the Brexiteers’ promises
Sep 7th 2016 | Britain


Theresa Mayの大臣たちは慎重に特定に質問に答えることを避けてきている。しかし彼女は整然とEU脱退派の約束の多くに責任がないと言っている。

SOME 77 days have passed since Britain voted on June 23rd to leave the European Union. Yet this period has been strangely reminiscent of 77 years ago, after Neville Chamberlain declared war on Nazi Germany: a phoney war. Theresa May, the prime minister, has created a new Department for Exiting the EU and put three leading Brexiteers (pictured) in charge of the process. But little else has happened. Article 50 of the EU treaty, which would kick off negotiations, has not been invoked. And Mrs May’s mantra, “Brexit means Brexit,” has become a tired cliche.

reminiscent :思い出させる

David Davis, secretary of state for the new department, had another go in Parliament on September 5th. Brexit, he explained helpfully, meant leaving the EU. He added that this implied taking back control of borders, laws and taxpayers’ money. He brimmed with cheer about the opportunities it would bring. Yet when asked specific questions—Would Britain quit the EU’s single market? What migration controls would it seek? Would it stay in Europol? When would negotiations start?—he gave only vague answers. 

another go:次の挑戦

That may be quite sensible, for a reason he also offered: that it is more important to get Brexit right than to do it quickly. His department is a work in progress. He has 180 officials and a further 120 in Brussels, but he needs more. As he spoke, he was flanked by his two Brexiteer colleagues, Boris Johnson as foreign secretary and Liam Fox at the Department for International Trade. The three men have been having the usual turf wars and squabbles over exactly what Brexit should entail.

turf wars:縄張り争い

Tellingly, two hints at answers emerged this week in Asia, not Westminster. In China for the G20 summit, Mrs May disavowed several pledges made by Brexiteers before the referendum. She said she was against an Australian-style “points” system for EU migrants (though mainly because it might let in too many, not too few). She refused to back Leavers’ promises to transfer saved EU budget payments to the National Health Service or scrap VAT on fuel bills. The not-so-subtle message was that, though the three Brexiteers may be nominally in charge, the real decisions will be taken by her and by Philip Hammond, her chancellor, both of them Remainers. 

Australian-style “points” system:To qualify for a range of Australian skilled visas, people must satisfy a points-based assessment. Points are awarded in a number of categories. Age requirements Applicants must be under 50. Any applicants aged between 25 and 32 automatically start with half of the required 60 points. Those aged between 45 and 49 start with zero. Competency in English All applicants must demonstrate a basic competence in English. But they are only awarded points if their language skills are deemed “proficient” or “superior”. Qualifications and experience The remaining points to achieve the minimum 60 are awarded for certain qualifications and employment histories – gained in Australia or overseas – or other factors including tertiary education and whether an applicant’s partner fulfils certain requirements. A doctorate from an institution recognised by Australia is worth 20 points, for example. Prospective residents can also gain points if they have previously worked in Australia, or if they have studied in certain specified parts of the country, such as metropolitan areas with low population growth.

These two may have welcomed a second Asian intervention: the unusual publication by Japan’s foreign ministry of a Brexit paper. Japanese companies, it said, were huge employers in Britain, which took almost half of Japan’s investment in the EU last year. Most of that came because Britain is a gateway to Europe. The paper advised Mrs May to try to retain full access to the single market, to avoid customs controls on exports, to preserve the “passport” that allows banks based in London to trade across Europe and to let employers freely hire EU nationals. 


水曜日。今日はこれまで。Theresa May首相の意見だ。Brexitには賛成していないということがだんだんあからさまになってきたという記事だ。そうだろう。Brexitのために脱退派をその担当の大臣に指名しているが、彼女氏自身はG20で日本の意見を尊重している。要はEUとうまくやっていくということだ。Australian-style “points” systemになぜ反対するのかの背景はわからないが、今後のイギリスの政治の動きが面白そうだ。


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一人の政治家による大失態はオーストラリア人の考え方に受け入れられていない。(2) 安息日に道路をめぐる騒動はイスラエルの宗教の強硬派による増大する影響力が目立っている。


On September 7th Mr Dastyari resigned as a party whip, but not as an MP. Although he admits that accepting the money was “a big mistake”, he denies any link between the donations and his remarks on the South China Sea. The donations, he points out, had been declared as required and were perfectly legal. Australia’s politicians and political parties, it transpires, took A$5.5m in donations from Chinese-linked firms in the two years through June 2015, including A$500,000 from Yuhu. Many are now calling for donations from foreigners to be banned. 

party whip:院内総務
as required by law:法律の定めるところにより

China is Australia’s biggest trading partner, and one of its biggest sources of immigrants. Chinese demand for Australian resources, as well as ever-increasing numbers of Chinese tourists and students, have helped to underpin Australia’s 25 years of unbroken economic growth. But many Australians worry that the pursuit of Chinese business is undermining their country’s independence. 


Mr Turnbull seems to agree. In April his government rejected a bid by Dakang, a Chinese company, for S. Kidman and Co, a vast outback empire of cattle ranches that owns 2.5% of Australia’s agricultural land. Last month it turned down a joint bid by State Grid, a Chinese government-owned company, and Cheung Kong, of Hong Kong, for a 50.4% stake in Ausgrid, an electricity-distribution network in New South Wales, Australia’s biggest state. Scott Morrison, the most senior finance minister, said both bids were “contrary to the national interest”, without explaining how. Yet British firms own 7% of Australia’s agricultural land, without apparently damaging the national interest. And State Grid already owns stakes in electricity distributors in other parts of Australia. The rules have not changed since those investments were made but, judging by the uproar about Mr Dastyari, the mood has. 

turned down:拒絶する


All quiet on the Sabbath
A row over roads highlights the growing sway of Israel’s religious hardliners
Ancient religion meets a 21st-century economy
Sep 7th 2016 | JERUSALEM | Middle East and Africa

Sabbath:〖通例the 〜〗安息日(Sabbath Day)〘仕事や旅行をせず祈りと休息に当てる日; ユダヤ教では土曜日, 一般のキリスト教では日曜日, イスラムでは金曜日〙
row over roads:道路をめぐる騒動 


THE morning of September 4th, a Sunday and the start of the working week in Israel, was a lot worse than the usual automotive nightmare. Maintenance work on the main (and only functioning) railway line between Tel Aviv and the north, which had been scheduled for Saturday, when regular services are suspended for the duration of the Sabbath, had been cancelled due to pressure from the ultra-Orthodox Haredi parties, who were threatening to pull out of the ruling coalition, potentally bringing it down. As a result, the work extended until Sunday evening, creating much greater pressure on the roads than usual. 

pull out of:脱退する 
bringing it down:打倒する

As drivers advanced at a snail’s pace, officials and politicians traded recriminations. In particular, it set up a fresh clash between Binyamin Netanyahu, the prime minister, and one of the more popular members of his cabinet, the transport minister Yisrael Katz. Mr Katz is one of the few Likud ministers with an independent base of support in the party, which makes Mr Netanyahu suspicious of him: he is said to blame Mr Katz for stirring the Haredis up over the issue. 

snail’s pace:カタツムリの速さ
Likud:イスラエルの政党。イスラエル右翼連合とも呼ばれる。 1973年9月,ガハル党,フリー・センター,ステート・リスト,大イスラエル運動の右派4党で結成された。支持者は軍部内に多く,対アラブ強硬路線をとっている。
The Haredis:現代の非宗教的な文化と、イスラエルの現代の状態の精神的な権威を認めない多くの大衆を拒絶する正統派ユダヤ教のいくつかのセクトの総称
stirring the Haredis up:引っ掻き回す・不安にさせる



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極右のAfD党がドイツの1州ので第二党になる。 Mecklenburg-West PomeraniaでAngela Merkelの党を叩いた。 オーストラリアの中国ビジネスに対しての増大する恐れが偽善行為によって充満している。

The far-right AfD party comes second in one of Germany’s states
After beating Angela Merkel’s party in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, the populists aim for the Bundestag
Sep 4th 2016 | BERLIN | Europe

Mecklenburg-West PomeraniaでAngela Merkelの党を叩いたのち、大衆に迎合する人たちは連邦議会をめざしている。

CONFIDENT of a strong showing, the Alternative for Germany (AfD), a right-wing populist party, splurged on a visually impressive venue to watch the results of an election in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania on September 4th. Its candidates and supporters gathered in a thatched-roof beach house on a lakeside in Schwerin, overlooking the castle that houses the state assembly. “We tack into the wind,” ran the message on the sail of a boat on the water. And how the cheers went up when the exit polls came in. The party won 21.9% of the vote, putting it second after the Social Democrats (SPD), which got 30.2%—and beating the Christian Democrats (CDU) of Chancellor Angela Merkel, who got just 19%. 

the Alternative for Germany (AfD):ドイツのための選択肢

This result is the latest in a string of advances for the AfD. It has no hope of entering a governing coalition anywhere in Germany; other parties view it as toxic. Instead, it positions itself as collecting protest votes against a politically correct elite. It will now be represented in nine of Germany’s 16 federal state parliaments. “Finally there is a real opposition again,” bellowed Leif-Erik Holm, the party’s top candidate in Mecklenburg, to his cheering supporters in the beach house. “Maybe today is the beginning of the end of the chancellorship of Angela Merkel.” 


As a result of her liberal refugee policy, Mrs Merkel served as the AfD’s bogeyman during this campaign. The chancellor, who grew up in the former East Germany and whose own electoral district is situated in this northeastern state, remains popular with many locals. But when, one year to the day before the election, she opened Germany’s borders to masses of refugees seeking to enter Europe via the Balkans, she lost the backing of much of Germany, especially in the eastern parts where foreigners are relatively rare. Having felt like second-class citizens in a reunified Germany since 1990, many Mecklenburgers, rationally or not, feared they would become aliens in their own country. 

rationally :合理的に

The results will have little effect on the government of Mecklenburg, where the mainstream parties are famous for their pragmatic willingness to co-operate. Social Democrats and Christian Democrats could continue to govern together, with a solid majority of the assembly’s 71 seats. Alternatively, the Social Democrats could invite a new coalition partner, The Left (a far-left party descended from the former East German Communists), for a much narrower majority. 

But Mecklenburg’s election increases the temperature of federal politics as Germany prepares to choose the next Bundestag in the autumn of 2017. There is no longer any question that the AfD, only four years after its founding, will enter the federal parliament. What is currently a four-party system nationally will probably become a six-party chamber if the liberal Free Democrats also manage to enter, as polls suggest they will. 

That fragmentation complicates the coalition mathematics for the centrist parties. Mrs Merkel’s Christian Democrats in particular will be under constant pressure from the AfD, one reason why Mrs Merkel continues to hedge on whether she will stand for another term. But all mainstream parties have reason to worry about the AfD’s rise. The results from Mecklenburg suggest that the AfD made its biggest gains among blue-collar workers, who defected from the Social Democrats by 11 percentage points and from The Left by 8 points. Indeed, The Left has largely been replaced as the preferred home for frustrated easterners by its new rivals on the opposite end of the political spectrum. Perhaps the only good news for mainstream parties, and for all moderate voters, was that the NPD, a neo-Nazi party that had been represented in Mecklenburg’s assembly, was voted out. It will cease to play a major role in German politics. But many of its supporters have simply switched their allegiance to the AfD instead.

voted out:追いおとす

Mecklenburg-West PomeraniaでAngela Merkeは負けてしまた。移民政策のせいだ。neo-Nazi partyが当選しなかったことがせめてもの救いだ。しかしながら、2017年の国政選挙がどうなるのだろうか。今の状態のままでは彼女のChristian Democratsの支持は減ってしまうに違いない。移民を受け入れるのであれば、よっぽどの政策を施さない限り、彼女のポジションは維持できないだろう。

You can’t buy trust
Australia’s growing fear of Chinese business is drenched in hypocrisy
A politician’s blunder exposes inconsistencies in Australian attitudes
Sep 7th 2016 | SYDNEY | Asia



SELDOM have Australia’s complex relations with China been more starkly exposed than in the agonies of Sam Dastyari, a prominent opposition MP. Three months ago Mr Dastyari gave a press conference with Huang Xiangmo, the head of Yuhu Group, a subsidiary of a property company linked to China’s government. Contradicting both the government’s line and the policy of his own party (Labor), Mr Dastyari called on Australia to “respect” China’s ill-founded territorial claims in the South China Sea, according to reports in the Chinese press. Mr Dastyari, it recently emerged, has accepted donations from Yuhu and from the Top Education Institute, a local firm run by a Chinese-Australian with close ties to both governments. Mr Dastyari used the money to pay for travel and legal advice. Yuhu also gave Mr Dastyari two bottles of Penfolds Grange, Australia’s most expensive wine, worth around A$800 ($600) a bottle. From the G20 summit in China, Malcolm Turnbull, Australia’s prime minister, called Mr Dastyari’s remarks “cash for comment”. 

starkly :露骨に
“cash for comment”:The cash for comment affair was an Australian scandal that broke in 1999, concerning paid advertising in radio that is presented to the audience in such a way as to sound like editorial commentary. John Laws, a shock jock radio presenter for Sydney talk back, was accused of misusing his authority as an announcer.This was widely considered a breach of journalistic integrity.

月曜日。今日はこれまで。まあ、とんでもないことをDastyari議員は言ってしまったということですね。南シナ海領有の中国意見を支持したという話だ。言わば買収されたということで、首相のMalcolm Turnbullも呆れてしまった。


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G20の指導者たちが中国で会う。 世界の最も重要な二国間の関係の変動(2)

But if the various hitches can be laughed off, the furore surrounding them is nonetheless revealing. It is common to hear China’s relationship with America described as the world’s most important one between two countries. In one corner stands the world’s lone superpower, in the other its foremost challenger—one that is getting stronger quickly and that is moving more aggressively to assert territorial claims in seas where America long held military sway. America has responded in part with a “pivot to Asia”, vowing to shift the focus of its foreign-policy to the region. Even if this strategy has not lived up to its billing, China has condemned it as an attempt by America to thwart its rise. 

get top [star] billing: 名前がプログラムの最上位に載る.

Commercial disputes have also flared up. Access to China’s market, never easy for foreign investors, has become tougher. China’s companies are turning into fearsome competitors. Take the case of Apple: it is losing customers to slick upstart Chinese smartphone-makers at the same time as regulators are limiting the services it can provide in China. America, meanwhile, has slapped tariffs on Chinese goods—ranging from solar panels to steel—to counteract the state subsidies that, in part, fuel China’s cheap exports. 


There has also been a widening in recent years of the gulf between the two countries’ political values. Xi Jinping, China’s president, has been tightening controls on civil society and the media, and jailing ever more activists. The hope that greater openness might follow in the wake of China’s economic growth looks increasingly forlorn. The suffocating security in Hangzhou is a small reminder of that. 


The other half of the glass
In some areas, however, relations between China and America have also made commendable progress. Chinese investment in America has soared in recent years, knitting the two countries together more closely. As the Chinese economy matures, its companies and regulators have become more sensitive to the need to protect intellectual property—as Americans, like others in the West, have long been demanding they should. There are now more than 300,000 Chinese students in America. Some of them, at least, will return with fond memories of the country that hosted them. 


China and America have also scored one clear diplomatic success: their joint pledge in 2014 to cut their greenhouse-gas emissions. This paved the way for a global climate-change agreement in Paris last year. Just before the start of the G20 meeting in Hangzhou, the two countries announced that they would formally ratify the Paris deal. As the world’s two biggest emitters of greenhouse gases, the two countries’ tricky relationship had previously been the biggest obstacle to global climate talks. Now their co-operation is perhaps the main reason for optimism. 

for optimism:理由を楽観的に考えている

Even China’s hosting of the G20 is in its way an accomplishment. In 2005 Robert Zoellick, then America’s deputy secretary of state, called on China to become a “responsible stakeholder” in the international system. The eagerness with which China has taken to its G20 hosting duties is evidence that it is. 


By the time Mr Obama shook hands with Mr Xi at the formal start of the G20, they were all smiles. This was not a true reflection of the state of the relationship. But the image that will surely prove more memorable—of Mr Obama walking down the metal stairway from the undercarriage of Air Force One—was not an accurate reflection of it either. 

By the time:までには



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海野 恵一



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海野塾のイベントはFacebookのTeamSwingbyを参照ください。 またスウィングバイは以下のところに引っ越しました。 スウィングバイ株式会社 〒108-0023 東京都港区芝浦4丁目2−22東京ベイビュウ803号 Tel: 080-9558-4352 Fax: 03-3452-6690 E-mail: clyde.unno@swingby.jp Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/clyde.unno 海野塾: https://www.facebook.com TeamSwingby

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