2017年07月12日

世界主義者、民族主義者、愛国主義者

Jun 27, 2017 | 22:28 GMT
Globalists, Nationalists and Nationalists
By Reva Goujon
VP of Global Analysis, Stratfor

世界主義者、民族主義者、愛国主義者

In times of global angst, we tend to organize ourselves into rival camps and casually hurl political epithets at each other as a matter of practice and principle. A couple of similarly angst-ridden generations ago, identifying yourself as a communist or capitalist could provide you with a medal or land you in jail, depending on where you were in the world and the company you kept. Now, it is self-proclaimed globalists and nationalists who are pitted against each other in a battle to passionately defend or radically reconstruct the global order. 

angst:不安・苦悩
camp:陣営
organize ourselves:団結する
hurl:非難を浴びせる
epithets :罵倒語句
angst-ridden:不安に支配された
land:に陥る
self-proclaimed:自称の
pit against:戦わせる

Previous columns have examined the underlying forces — from aging populations in the advanced industrial world, to technological change compensating for lagging productivity, to major evolutions in global trade — that have put this most recent global rebalancing in motion. This rebalancing will take generations to play out but is growing more visible by the day. Just watch the battle lines being drawn by the "globalists" and "nationalists" from within the tense corridors of the White House to the flag-lined stage of the upcoming G20 summit in Hamburg, where host German Chancellor Angela Merkel will once again face off against U.S. President Donald Trump.

compensating:埋めあわせる
tense corridor:張り詰めた通路
flag-lined:旗が並んだ

Divided Camps
At the risk of oversimplifying, the so-called globalists celebrate deeper connectivity around the world. In global trade, complex supply chains have stretched from continent to continent, moving parts, ideas and technologies multiple times across borders to produce a single good. All of this raises the wealth of the developing world in the process. Globalists see the rapid pace of urbanization as both a threat and an opportunity. 

If roughly half of the world is currently urbanized, and two-thirds of the world's population is expected to live in cities by 2050, cities — and the politicians who govern them — will be expected to provide water, power, food, transportation infrastructure, affordable housing and jobs to the arriving masses. Or else, political upheaval will ensue. That looming stress on local and planet-wide resources drives technological progress — from vertical farming to modular construction to battery innovation — to find solutions, enhancing along the way the clout of more innovative corporations that can agilely fill voids left by the state.

upheaval:激変
ensue:すぐに起こる
Vertical farming:垂直農法(垂直農業)は、 高層建築物の階層、及び高層の傾斜面を使用して垂直的に農作業、動物の育成を行う方法。
modular construction:モジュール工法
agilely:すばしこく
voids:空間

Nationalism is a dirty word for most globalists. The mention of it conjures disturbing images of parades filled with high-kneed marches and stiff salutes, a blinding embrace of propaganda and the threat of losing a generation to war. Globalists subscribe to the postwar liberal order that argues for collective security arrangements, such as NATO, and ambitious political unions, like the European Union, to tame nationalist fervor. Moreover, many globalists, particularly in the West, regard the United States as a superpower, or least a first among equals. Indeed, it is a nation equipped with the resources and foundational values to play a leading role in governing the globe among other like-minded nations. That responsibility traces back to the Bretton Woods system set up in the postwar order, where the United States guaranteed secure access to markets through its overwhelming control of the seas and used that as a basis to construct a globe-spanning network of allies. 

dirty:嫌な
conjures:思い起こす
stiff:硬直した
tame:制御する
fervor:情熱
like-minded:考え方が似た
spanning:またがる

The current iteration of this globalist message tends to resonate with a more youthful demographic that embraces technology and seeks international exposure as a way of life. Advocates bristle at talk of nostalgia for 'simpler' times, regarding such rhetoric as a gross distortion of history. The globalists are more willing to project their minds decades into the future in an attempt to tackle problems that will impact future generations. 

iteration:反復
bristle:身構える
gross distortion:著しい歪曲

We associate leaders such as Former U.S. President Barack Obama, French President Emmanuel Macron, former Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau — and even powerful princelings further east like Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman — with a camp of contemporary globalist leaders. While there is a youthful face to this club, the globalist-nationalist divide is not simply a function of age or generational divide. Those who know and fear their history, like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, have risked their own political careers to defend a globalist agenda in an age of resurgent nationalism.

On the other hand, the older nationalists who lived through the chaos of the destruction of the Soviet Union in Russia regard the globalist-minded millennials protesting in the streets of Moscow as dangerously naive and blind to their own history. 

naive :世間知らずの・素朴な

Nationalists tend to see the globalists as spineless and misguided. A deep understanding of the past, and a vision toward the future, does little good if politicians are skipping over the problems festering before their eyes today. The nationalists preach a seductive message of taking back control of one's life, of one's nation. They minimize the consumer benefits of global trade and emphasize instead the tragedy that has befallen low-skilled workers who are ill prepared to keep pace with automation and free trade. Their mindset is entrenched in the present. Why spend time poring over demographic and climate charts when the solutions to those problems are wholly intangible to the common man and woman suffering today? 

spineless:意気地のない
festering:悪化する
entrenched:変わることない
intangible:掴みどころのない

世界の動きが世界主義者が中心になってきたが、ここに来て、トランプのような愛国主義者が出てきた。そのため、気象変動、自由貿易についての議論が世界のリーダーの間でまとまらない。世界が協調してお互いに良い世界を築いていこうとする中で、トランプの考えを受け入れようとする国家はないが、アメリカの国民は彼を支持している。そうしたアメリカの国民の考えを理解しようとしないととトランプの行動は理解できない。だた彼が専制君主的な性格を持っているのが災いしている。それと合わさって彼の政策が歪曲されている。もう少し、彼の考えを深く検討して見る必要はある。

木曜日。ではまた明日。

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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

スウィングバイ株式会社
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アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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