2017年07月13日

世界主義者、民族主義者、愛国主義者(2)

An American farmer who has seen their livelihood go up in dust after years of drought does not want a lecture on climate change; they want a politician who will tell them that immediate relief has arrived and that the scientists other politicians are listening to are full of bunk. A prideful Frenchman would rather fixate on a message of preserving a modern French way of life imbedded in the country's revolutionary fabric than tolerate alien customs and job-seeking migrants coming across the Mediterranean from the war-torn Islamic world. 

livelihood:生活費
bunk:bunkum  政治家の人気取り演説 たわごと
fixate:執着している 
fabric :社会の基本構造

Even as nationalists make big — and often unrealistic — promises to their voters on short-term fixes to their long-term problems, setting the stage for further disappointment down the road, they are still able to feed off long-building disillusionment and distrust in political institutions to gain a voice and platform among the masses. Critically, certain powerful members of the elite are able to internalize that deep and confining sense of disillusionment. They are the ones who are ready to put their money and message behind those who they think can effect change. Take for example Robert Mercer and his daughter Rebekah Mercer — the wealthy backers behind White House chief strategist Stephen Bannon — who have collectively played a strong ideological role in shaping the Trump agenda. Writers Neil Howe and William Strauss, authors of the The Fourth Turning, have deeply influenced this group with their generational argument that prophesies the rebirth of an American identity.

Even as:ちょうど〜のように
feed off:増長される
masses:一般大衆
internalize:身につける
confining :閉じ込める
collectively:共同で
prophesies :予言する

They believe that the only way to save the republic from its current unraveling, and from its ossified public institutions, is to allow for the creative destruction of the state itself and rebuild from the ashes toward a more enlightened capitalist state based on Judeo-Christian values. 

unraveling:失敗する・崩壊し始める
ossified:融通がきかなくなる
Judeo-Christian:ユダヤ教とキリスト教に共通の

This mindset is naturally more risk-tolerant and less concerned with the very real consequences of injecting uncertainty into alliances and trade pacts around the world. For this class of nationalists, the system is so broken that the time for big risk and sacrifice has arrived. To carry their ambitious agenda forward, the nationalists weaponize populism to control the message to the masses. Thus, distrust toward public institutions is naturally channeled toward the mainstream media. "Fake news" becomes a mantra to drive people toward sources of information that conform to their worldview. And truth gets sacrificed along the way. 

injecting :刺激を加える
sacrifice:犠牲
conform:合致する
along the way:ここに至るまでに

The nationalist mistrust toward political institutions plays out on a multinational level as well. If the nation has reached such a level of crisis that it needs to be saved, why should a country like the United States needlessly tether itself to international bodies that require ever-greater sacrifices from the global superpower? The UN, NATO and newer arrangements such as the Paris Accord are seen as straitjackets to American power as opposed to the natural evolution of a postwar foundation to stabilize the world and guarantee U.S. supremacy through trade and security linkages across the globe. 

needlessly:必要もないのに
tether:つなぐ
straitjackets:拘束服 

This is why nationalists scoff at the fluffy notion of "global citizenship." "There is no global anthem. No global currency. No certificate of global citizenship. We pledge allegiance to one flag and that flag is the American flag." - U.S. President Donald Trump 

scoff:ばかにする
fluffy:ふわふわした
anthem:賛歌・国歌
allegiance:忠誠

"If you believe you are a citizen of the world, you are a citizen of nowhere." - UK Prime Minister Theresa May  "Now, the dividing line is not between left and right, but globalists and patriots." - French National Right Leader Marine Le Pen 

Citizenship, after all, is a loaded word. The concept traces a history that stretches from the ancient Greek polis to the Roman Republic and the Italian city-states of the Renaissance, then fusing with the early Westphalian concept of a nation-state and the spawning of nationalism in the French Revolution and democracy in the New World. The European Union's experimentation with open borders and the forces of globalization in the modern era introduced a new and still unresolved dimension to the concept of citizenship. But the essence of what it means to be a citizen remains. 

loaded:多くを含んでいる
fusing:に導火線を取り付ける
Westphalian concept:ヴェストファーレン条約( Peace of Westphalia)は、1648年に締結された三十年戦争の講和条約で、ミュンスター講和条約とオスナブリュック講和条約の総称である。ラテン語読みでウェストファリア条約とも呼ばれる。近代における国際法発展の端緒となり、近代国際法の元祖ともいうべき条約である。 この条約によって、ヨーロッパにおいて30年間続いたカトリックとプロテスタントによる宗教戦争は終止符が打たれ、条約締結国は相互の領土を尊重し内政への干渉を控えることを約し、新たなヨーロッパの秩序が形成されるに至った。
spawning:引き起こす
experimentation:実験

As Aristotle described centuries ago, man is a political animal and a virtuous and natural path to law and order is for citizens to live under a rule of law and to take an active part in the communities with which they share blood and common values. Citizenship is a collection of rights protected by political institutions and excluded to non-citizens. And the test of citizen loyalty is the willingness of man to die for those rights. Global citizenship, therefore, is a hollow concept if there is no legitimate entity with the capacity to protect the community it claims to represent. This is particularly so when that community is fundamentally divided by its national imperatives. How many people are willing to die for the Paris Accord, the United Nations charter or even the European Union? Globally engaged should not be conflated with global citizenship.

virtuous:徳の高い
imperatives:責務・義務
conflated:まとめる

世界主義者に対して民族主義者の話だが、トランプに見られるように、一般大衆に受けの良い政治をしようとする。それが短期的に成果を出すような言い方をするが、そんなことは短期で実現はできない。大衆に迎合した言い方をしているが、現実にはそうしたことは実現できない。また、世界においては今までのアメリカのように世界をまとめていこうとするようなことはしない。アメリカのことしか考えない。世界市民などという考えは毛頭念頭にない。

金曜日。大学同窓の会食。ではまた明日。

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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

スウィングバイ株式会社
代表取締役社長

アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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