成功するためのグーグルチームのための5つの鍵 と 太陽熱エネルギーに関してアメリカを強くするイーロンマスクの計画はこれだ。

The five keys to a successful Google team JULIA ROZOVSKY, ANALYST, GOOGLE PEOPLE OPERATIONS NOVEMBER 17, 2015


Pod. Work group. Committee. Autonomous collective. Whatever you call it, you’re part of one at Google and probably wherever you work: a team. So if we know what makes managers great, why don’t we know what makes a team great? Update: Check out the re:Work guide Understand team effectiveness for the full story on Google's team effectiveness research as well as tools to help teams foster psychological safety.

Autonomous collective:self-governed group
re:response 用件

A group of us in Google’s People Operations (what we call HR) set out to answer this question using data and rigorous analysis: What makes a Google team effective? We shared our research earlier today with the Associated Press, and we’re sharing the findings here, as well.


Over two years we conducted 200+ interviews with Googlers (our employees) and looked at more than 250 attributes of 180+ active Google teams. We were pretty confident that we'd find the perfect mix of individual traits and skills necessary for a stellar team -- take one Rhodes Scholar, two extroverts, one engineer who rocks at AngularJS, and a PhD. Voila. Dream team assembled, right?

stellar:優れた e

We were dead wrong. Who is on a team matters less than how the team members interact, structure their work, and view their contributions. So much for that magical algorithm. We learned that there are five key dynamics that set successful teams apart from other teams at Google:

dead wrong:全く間違っている

Psychological safety: Can we take risks on this team without feeling insecure or embarrassed? Dependability: Can we count on each other to do high quality work on time? Structure & clarity: Are goals, roles, and execution plans on our team clear? Meaning of work: Are we working on something that is personally important for each of us? Impact of work: Do we fundamentally believe that the work we’re doing matters? If you answered “yes” to the five questions above, congrats! You’re probably on a high-performing team. And if not, not all hope is lost. This is a shortcut to help you figure out where to focus, how to get better, and a way to talk about this concept with your teammates in a structured way.


5 Keys to Google Teams 5 Keys to Google Teams Psychological safety was far and away the most important of the five dynamics we found -- it’s the underpinning of the other four. How could that be? Taking a risk around your team members seems simple. But remember the last time you were working on a project. Did you feel like you could ask what the goal was without the risk of sounding like you’re the only one out of the loop? Or did you opt for continuing without clarifying anything, in order to avoid being perceived as someone who is unaware? Turns out, we’re all reluctant to engage in behaviors that could negatively influence how others perceive our competence, awareness, and positivity. Although this kind of self-protection is a natural strategy in the workplace, it is detrimental to effective teamwork. On the flip side, the safer team members feel with one another, the more likely they are to admit mistakes, to partner, and to take on new roles. And it affects pretty much every important dimension we look at for employees. Individuals on teams with higher psychological safety are less likely to leave Google, they’re more likely to harness the power of diverse ideas from their teammates, they bring in more revenue, and they’re rated as effective twice as often by executives.


Googlers love data. But they don’t want to sit idle with it. They want to act. So we created a tool called the gTeams exercise: a 10-minute pulse-check on the five dynamics, a report that summarizes how the team is doing, a live in-person conversation to discuss the results, and tailored developmental resources to help teams improve. Over the past year, more than 3,000 Googlers across 300 teams have used this tool. Of those Google teams, the ones that adopted a new group norm -- like kicking off every team meeting by sharing a risk taken in the previous week -- improved 6% on psychological safety ratings and 10% on structure and clarity ratings. Teams said that having a framework around team effectiveness and a forcing function to talk about these dynamics was missing previously and by far the most impactful part of the experience. From sales teams in Dublin to engineering teams in Mountain View, we’ve seen that focusing on this framework helps all types of teams improve.


Here's Elon Musk's Plan to Power the U.S. on Solar Energy "The sun is a giant fusion reactor in the sky." By Nick Lucchesi on July 16, 2017

太陽熱エネルギーに関してアメリカを強くするイーロンマスクの計画はこれだ。 「太陽は空の巨大な核融合炉だ。」

Tesla CEO Elon Musk — whose company makes electric cars and has a new solar roof panel division — reminded more than 30 state governors at the National Governors Association meeting this weekend exactly how much real-estate is needed to make sure America can run totally on solar energy. “If you wanted to power the entire United States with solar panels, it would take a fairly small corner of Nevada or Texas or Utah; you only need about 100 miles by 100 miles of solar panels to power the entire United States,” Musk said during his keynote conversation on Saturday at the event in Rhode Island. “The batteries you need to store the energy, so you have 24/7 power, is 1 mile by 1 mile. One square-mile.” It’s “a little square on the U.S. map, and then there’s a little pixel inside there, and that’s the size of the battery park that you need to support that. Real tiny.” Musk laid out his vision for renewable energy that relies on capturing power from the sun via solar panels — Musk would probably prefer the solar panels are made by Tesla — to fill the enormous demand for energy in the areas of transportation, electricity, and heating. Currently, about 10 percent of energy in the U.S. is renewable. Solar Panels All Done! Solar Panels All Done! Solar roof panels in Los Angeles.

1. Combine Rooftop Solar Panels and Utility-Sized Solar Plants Musk sees the solar future for America as a combination of rooftop solar — the panels on a house in the suburbs — and utility-scale solar that can make up needs in other areas. Recently, Tesla confirmed it would build a massive solar-powered battery to help power-starved South Australia. The Tesla Powerpack setup is seen in this company rendering.


Musk would likely want to see the Tesla Powerpack — its utility-scale product that uses fields of solar panels and dozens of car-sized batteries — used.

2. Use Other Power Sources During the Transition “We’ll need to be a combination of utility-scale solar and rooftop solar, combined with wind, geothermal, hydro, probably some nuclear for a while, in order to transition to a sustainable situation,” Musk explained on Saturday.


3. Build Infrastructure and Localize Power Localized power — aka solar panels on a roof — is important because it reduces infrastructure, like big power lines. “People do not like transmission lines going through their neighborhood. They really don’t like that, and I agree,” Musk said. “Rooftop solar, utility solar; that’s really going to be a solution from the physics standpoint,” he said. “I can really see another way to really do it.” Why solar energy over other methods of power generation? Musk says humans have been relying on the sun for as long as there have been humans, basically. It’s worked up to now. aka:also known as The sun powers all this anyway.

all this anyway:とにかく、これだけのことがある

“The Earth is almost entirely solar-powered today, in the sense that the sun is the only thing that keeps us from being at the temperature of cosmic background radiation, which is 3 degrees above absolute-zero,” he said. “If it wasn’t for the sun, we’d be a frozen, dark ice ball. The amount of energy that reaches us from the sun is tremendous. It’s the 99 percent-plus of all energy that Earth has.” radiation:放射線 After all, the sun’s a mind-bogglingly big energy ball, anyway: “People talk about fusion and all that, but the sun is a giant fusion reactor in the sky. It’s really reliable. It comes up every day. If it doesn’t, we’ve got bigger problems.”


Going on Solar Means Going Off Fossil Fuels South Dakota

Governor Dennis Daugaard asked why exactly Musk thinks electric cars have a future in the face of very low gasoline prices. (Musk envisions Tesla’s vehicles running off power captured by solar panels that recharge a car’s battery. It all goes back to the sun for him.) After saying “there’s no question whatsoever that all transport — with the ironic exception of rockets — will go fully electric,” Musk explained the “big challenge” for electric cars competing with gasoline-powered vehicles: Essentially, it boils down to the fact that pollution from gasoline-powered vehicles has a huge impact on literally everything, except, crucially, the price of gas.

ironic:皮肉な boils:煮詰まる

“There’s an unpriced externality in the cost of fossil fuels,” Musk said. “The unpriced externality is the probability-weighted harm of changing the chemical constituency of the atmosphere and oceans. Since it is not captured in the price of gasoline, it does not drive the right behavior. It’d be like if tossing out garbage was just free, and there was no penalty, and you could do it as much as you want. The streets would be full of garbage. We’ve regulated a lot of other things, like sulfur emissions and nitrous oxide emissions; it’s done a lot of good on that front.”

externality:外部への影響 constituency:支援団体 sulfur:硫黄 nitrous:亜酸化窒素 on that front:最優先で

A gas and oil refinery in Bismarck, North Dakota. Surprisingly, Musk said he does feel some pity for big oil, in that when those companies were founded more than 100 years ago, there was very little indication that their logos would be seen as villainous a few generations later.


“They worked really hard to create those companies,” Musk said. “They feel like they are being attacked on moral grounds. And it is true that we cannot instantaneously change to a sustainable situation.” He added one caveat, though: “But then those guys will also fight pretty hard to slow down the change, and that’s really what I think is morally wrong.” caveat:

警告 イーロンマスクが考えていることは電気自動車だけでなく、世界のエネルギー源は太陽光から取るべきだという考えがベースになっていて、太陽光発電がこれからの主流になるべきだと言っている。100マイル四方の太陽光パネルがあればアメリカの電力はまかなえてしまうと言っている。石油はもういらなくなる。たしかにそうかもしれない。栄枯盛衰で、サウジの栄華は終わりかもしれない。 金曜日。今日は山の日でお休みだ。ではまた明日。

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