2017年08月24日

キリスト教徒は原子爆弾をどのように扱ってきたか。 世界で最も一般的な宗教は原子力という恐ろしいものに対して矛盾した回答をしている。

How Christianity has dealt with nuclear weapons
The world’s most popular faith offers conflicting responses to the spectre of atomic power
Aug 20th 2017

キリスト教徒は原子爆弾をどのように扱ってきたか。
世界で最も一般的な宗教は原子力という恐ろしいものに対して矛盾した回答をしている。



WHERE have Christians stood in the debate about nuclear weapons? How have practitioners of the world’s most popular religion answered the moral dilemmas posed by devices that could bring all human life to a horrific end? Given that the controllers of the world’s two main nuclear arsenals both claim to be champions of the Christian cause, the question is topical, not just an academic brain-teaser. 

practitioners:実践している人
posed:もたらす
topical:時事的な
brain-teaser:難問・謎
Given that:もし〜ならば
Christian cause:理念・信念・大義

And the best answer is that right from the beginning of the nuclear age, Christians have found themselves on both sides, often in rather dramatic ways. This month’s war of words over North Korea have brought reminders of that paradox. Soon after President Donald Trump issued his threat of “fire and fury”, a theological battle broke out through the medium of America’s leading newspapers. Robert Jefress, one of Mr Trump’s favourite pastors, stated that God had given the president authority to “take out” North Korea’s leader. Elaborating in an interview with the Washington Post, he said worldly leaders had been endowed with “full power to use whatever means necessary, including war, to stop evil.” 

right from the beginning:最初から
paradox:矛盾
medium:媒体
pastors:牧師
take out:殺す
Elaborating:くわしく論じる
endowed :能力を授けられた

The Dallas-based preacher didn’t explicitly urge Mr Trump to tee up his nuclear weapons but he heartily endorsed a presidential stance which did make that threat. An Episcopal priest, Steven Paulikas, shot back with an op-ed in the New York Times which described the Texan’s theology as “shockingly misinformed and dangerous”.

endorsed:承認する
Episcopal:英国国教会の
shot back:言い返す
theology:教義
misinformed:誤った情報を教える

As Mr Paulikas argued, Saint Paul’s injunction to respect earthly powers was not meant to be a carte blanche to use violence; rather it referred to practical matters like taxation. “A wiser spiritual adviser than Jefress would counsel the president that there is no conceivable argument to be found in Christian scriptures for threatening death and suffering on a huge scale,” the Anglican added. 

injunction:戒め
earthly:この世の
carte blanche:自由裁量権
conceivable:考えつく
scriptures:聖典

When the nuclear era dawned, Christians were “on both sides” in a more literal sense. The American aircraft which obliterated Hiroshima and Nagasaki were crewed by Christian servicemen and counseled and blessed by Christian military chaplains. And Nagasaki, as it happened, was the main bastion of Japanese Christianity, a tradition which had survived harsh persecution between 1600 and 1850. 

dawned:現れ始める
in a more literal sense:より文字通りの意味で
obliterated:壊滅させる
servicemen:軍人
chaplains:軍の牧師
bastion:本拠地

Its Urakami cathedral was an early mega-church with 12,000 members, and it provided the bombers with a landmark that could be identified at 31,000 feet. It has been estimated that 8,500 of those faithful died as a direct or indirect result of the bomb. Worshippers attending Thursday morning confessions were annihilated instantly by the fireball which exploded 500 metres above the house of prayer. 

landmark:画期的な出来事
Worshippers:礼拝者
annihilated:全滅させる

Then there were those who changed sides. Father George Zabelka, the Catholic chaplain of the American air force group which delivered the bombs, underwent a conversion to pacifism after the full results of the explosions became clear. He travelled to Nagasaki on the 50th anniversary of the bomb and made a tearful plea for forgiveness.

underwent:経験する・変化を経る
conversion:改宗
pacifism:平和主義
plea:懇願

William Downey, the airmen’s Lutheran pastor, experienced a similar change of heart. In the Roman Catholic world’s intellectual stratosphere, meanwhile, there was a more gradual sea-change. After centuries of elaborating a just-war doctrine, a succession of popes and their brainiest advisers came to the conclusion that nuclear weapons had changed the ethical calculus over war. As early as 1954, Pope Pius XII seemed to foresee a time when the “evil consequences of adopting this method of warfare” would “pass entirely beyond the control of man.” 

stratosphere:最高階級
meanwhile:一方で
calculus:論法
foresee:予知する

A recurring theme of Christian reflections about the first nuclear explosions is the idea their murderous flashes form a grotesque counterpoint to the Transfiguration: the moment when Jesus of Nazareth is said to have appeared to three of his disciples in a blinding flash of light, giving them a new understanding of his divinity. The Transfiguration is celebrated by most Christians on August 6th, the anniversary of Hiroshima; Russians and some other Orthodox Christians marked the feast yesterday, the old-calendar date. 

recurring:繰り返し起こる
reflections:考察・内省
counterpoint :対比的な要素
Transfiguration:キリストの変容
disciples:弟子・使徒
divinity:神格・神性
feast:祭日

According to an essay by Nicholas Sooy, a young American Orthodox Christian scholar, both the Transfiguration and Hiroshima are remembered as moments when “there was a great cloud, and the light radiated forth brighter than the sun” and “there was a thunderous sound as if the heavens had opened..” But the first incident is presented as one of reassurance and inspiration, while the second one delivered a message of apocalyptic fear, one that disfigured the world through the ongoing effects of radiation. 

radiated:光を発する
forth:外へ
reassurance:安心感
inspiration:霊感
apocalyptic:この世の終わりの
disfigured:外観を損なう
radiation:放射能

Mr Sooy is a leader of the Orthodox Peace Fellowship, an anti-violence fraternity whose founders belong to the Russian Orthodox parish in Amsterdam. 

Fellowship:使徒集団
fraternity:信徒団体
parish:教区

But plenty of other voices can be heard in the world of Russian Christianity. One of Russia’s nuclear bureaucrats has noted with approval that by organising conferences and stimulating debate in a patriotic spirit, the country’s national church had helped to preserve the nuclear arsenal and concentrate minds on the need for a strategic deterrent; this had been an important counterweight to the sloppy pacifism which maintained that Russia had no enemies.

counterweight:釣り合う
sloppy:感傷的な

Russian clergy are regularly seen blessing nuclear arms; they would defend that practice by saying the point of such blessings is to pray that the weapons will not be used. In other words, that the rockets will stay in their silos and do their job.

The one thing organised Christianity doesn’t seem to offer is a clear, unanimous answer to the dilemmas of a nuclear age. But its cacophony of voices does throw those dilemmas into even sharper relief. 

cacophony:不協和音
より際立った形において

キリスト教が原子爆弾をどう見ているかの考えだが、どうも意見が別れているようだ。神は北朝鮮の金正恩を殺してもいいということを言っているとか言う意見がある反面、長崎に落とした原爆のように、罪のない信徒を数多く殺したことに対する懺悔の気持ちがある。そこにキリスト教の十戒に見られるような懺悔の考えがある。懺悔すれば許されるのである。仏教とか神道には懺悔なない。許されないのである。そもそも戦争おいて、一般大衆を意図的に殺害すること自体が正当化出来ない。もちろん、そうした原爆のような無差別殺戮はアメリカだけではない。しかしながら、それは正当化は出来ないのである。日本は細菌爆弾をテストでは幾度か中国大陸で使ったが、実際の日米戦争では使わなかった。宗教観の違いかもしれない。

金曜日。今日は朝からエアコンのクリーニングがある。ではまた明日。 

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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

スウィングバイ株式会社
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アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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