2017年09月28日

インドの貧富の州の格差が広がっている。 貧しい州が追いつくにはどうしたら良いのか悩んでいる。

The gap between India’s richer and poorer states is widening
Economists are baffled, arguing that the poorer states should be catching up
Aug 30th 2017 | MUMBAI

インドの貧富の州の格差が広がっている。
貧しい州が追いつくにはどうしたら良いのか悩んでいる。

baffled:悩ませる



COUNTRIES find it easier to get rich once their neighbours already are. East Asia’s growth pattern has for decades been likened to a skein of geese, from Japan at the vanguard to laggards such as Myanmar at the rear. The same pattern can often be seen within big countries: over the past decade, for example, China’s poorer provinces have grown faster than their wealthier peers. India is different. Far from converging, its states are getting ever more unequal. A recent shake-up in the tax system might even make matters worse. 

likened:たとえる
skein:群れ
geese:goose ガン
vanguard:先頭
converging:一つにまとまる

Bar a few Mumbai penthouses and Bangalore startup offices, all parts of India are relatively poor by global standards. Taken together, its 1.3bn people make up roughly the third and fourth decile of the world’s population, with an income per head (adjusted for purchasing power) of $6,600 dollars. But that average conceals a vast gap. In Kerala, a southern state, the average resident has an annual income per head of $9,300, higher than Ukraine, and not too far from the global median. With just $2,000 or so, his fellow Indian in Bihar, a landlocked state of 120m people, is closer to a citizen of Mali or Chad, in the bottom decile globally. 

Bar:を除いては
penthouses:ペントハウス〘(特に高層の)ビルの最上階にある高級マンション〙
decile:統計解析において、データの相対的位置をみるのに用いる数値のこと。度数分布で与えられた全データを十等分した点で、5番目の十分位数が中央値にあたる。デシル。
landlocked:海のない〈国場所など〉; 陸に囲まれた

The gap has been widening. In 1990, point out Praveen Chakravarty and Vivek Dehejia of the IDFC Institute, a think-tank, India’s three richest large states had incomes just 50% higher than the three poorest—roughly the same divergence as in America or the EU today, and more equal than in China. Now the trio is three times richer (see chart). 

divergence:相違
trio:3つの州 

It is true that in some rich parts of the world, income gaps between regions have in recent decades been widening. But India’s experience still puzzles economists. Poor countries benefit from technology developed in richer ones—from trains to mobile phones. Workers in less rich countries accept lower wages, so firms build new factories there. 

The catch-up process ought to be all the faster if barriers to the movement of goods or people are lower. Regions within China have been converging rapidly, partly owing to the market, as factories move production inland, where wages are cheaper, and partly to government attempts to lift poorer regions by investing heavily in their infrastructure. Arvind Subramanian, chief economic adviser to India’s government, earlier this year wrote that its states’ divergence is “a deep puzzle”. The brief bout of liberalisation in 1991 probably played a part, by unevenly distributing the spoils of more rapid overall growth. But that burst of inequality should have self-corrected as the forces of equalisation came into play. 

bout:一回だけの
unevenly:不公平な
spoils:成果

One theory blames this divergence on states’ isolation even in the Indian domestic market, as a result of lousy infrastructure, red tape and cultural barriers. Moving stuff from state to state can be as troublesome as exporting. Internal migration that would generate catch-up growth is stymied by cultural and linguistic barriers: poor northern states are Hindi-speaking, unlike the richer south. Cuisines differ enough for internal migrants to grumble. It is harder to have access to benefits and state subsidies outside your home state. 

lousy:お粗末な
catch-up growth:遅れを取り戻すための成長
stymied:邪魔をする
grumble:不平を言う

Mr Subramanian thinks such arguments are overdone. India may not have mass migration on the scale that transformed China, but is still sizeable, he argues, and has been rising as a share of the population even as convergence has gone into reverse. Inter-state trade is healthy, suggesting suitably porous borders. 

overdone:大げさな
sizeable:かなり大きな
reverse:逆
porous :抜け道の多い

Another theory looks at India’s development model: growth has relied more on skill-intensive sectors such as IT than on labour-intensive manufacturing. This may have stymied the forces of convergence seen elsewhere, Mr Subramanian posits. Perhaps, however low their labour costs, the poorer places lack the skills base to poach jobs from richer rivals. 

posits:(理論に基づいて)…だと仮定する, (事実として)…と断定する; …を受け入れる
poach:〈人材〉を引き抜く


pull away:引き離す

A more likely explanation is that the reasons some states lagged in the first place—mainly to do with poor governance—are still largely in place. Bihar’s low wage costs make it look attractive on paper as a place to set up a factory. But many firms seem to conclude they do not compensate for its difficulties. 

If that idea is correct, the introduction of a new goods-and-services tax (GST) on July 1st might have worsened the divergent trend. Lots of state-level levies have been replaced with a single tax. Although barriers to interstate trade have become markedly lower, states have also forgone some fiscal autonomy, such as offering tax breaks to lure in investors. That may make it harder for poor states to catch up, says Mr Chakravarty. 

divergent:離れる
forgone:差し控える

Mr Subramanian notes, however, that the forces of convergence are gaining strength. Despite falling behind on income, poorer states have been catching up on human-development measures such as infant mortality and life expectancy. Fertility rates in the northern Hindi belt are fast falling to levels already reached by, for example, Tamil Nadu, a rich southern state. India’s “demographic dividend” is largely an opportunity for its poorer states—if they can create enough jobs to grasp it. 

fall (…) behind:(移動中に)(次第に)後れる, 後れをとる(↔keep up)
Fertility:出生率
grasp:活かす

Convergence is obviously desirable in a country where the straggling states are home to some of the world’s poorest people. But it might also help avert a political peril: that rich states start wondering if being lumped with far poorer peers is in their interests. In many states regional political parties compete with the national ones that have mostly dominated the federal government and quashed any talk of separatism. The questions over the divergent fortunes of Indian’s states are puzzling. They may yet become more serious. 

straggling:落伍する
avert:防ぐ
lumped:と一緒くたにする, ひとまとめにする(together); …をひとまとめにして扱う[考える]
quashed:否定する

インドの経済格差が縮まらない。理由はいろいろあって、言語、習慣の違いだけでなく、州政府の対応が異なったり、賃金格差だけでない問題もある。今回、税制を全国統一したことも、逆に、後進の州には不利になる。中国のように、インドは人の移動が活発でない。中国よりも州が独立していることも格差が縮まらない理由かもしれない。

金曜日。今日は徳永さんとの面談。元三井物産の相原さんとの会食。ではまた明日。

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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

スウィングバイ株式会社
代表取締役社長

アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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