2017年09月30日

何故マカオは香港程、民主主義を要求していないのか? この街はギャンブルでその将来を作った。しかし、マカオの市民はかなり、リスクを取ろうとしない。

Why Macau is less demanding of democracy than Hong Kong
Their city made its fortune from gambling, but Macau’s citizens are remarkably risk-averse
Sep 15th 2017by C.C. | HONG KONG

何故マカオは香港程、民主主義を要求していないのか?
この街はギャンブルでその将来を作った。しかし、マカオの市民はかなり、リスクを取ろうとしない。



HONG KONG and Macau have much in common. Just 60km apart across the Pearl River delta (and soon to be linked by a bridge), they were both European colonies before being returned to China. Britain handed over Hong Kong in 1997; Portugal handed over Macau two years later. Both are administered under the “one country, two systems” principle, which allows them to retain their systems of government for 50 years. Yet whereas many Hong Kongers agitate loudly and relentlessly for more democracy, the people of Macau appear less concerned. Why is this? 

Wealth may be part of the answer. Macau is the only part of China where gambling in casinos is legal. In one generation the city has become the world’s largest gambling centre, with the casino industry bringing an abundance of well-paid jobs. GDP per person in 2016 was 554,619 patacas ($73,187), among the highest in the world and 68% higher than in Hong Kong. Wages are supplemented by the government, which gives each resident 9,000 patacas every year. 

Chinese officials regard Macau as a political model for what Hong Kong should be: compliant with the Communist Party’s wishes and unequivocally patriotic. Loyalty is drilled into people by the media and in schools. A security law, known as Article 23, wielded in the name of punishing treason and secessionism, keeps citizens wary. In Hong Kong, opposition to “patriotic” education and to Article 23 forced the local government to shelve both. 

compliant:言いなりになる
unequivocally:明白に
Article 23:第23条 香港特別行政区は国に対する謀反、国家を分裂させる行為、反乱を扇動する行為、中央人民政府の転覆、国家機密窃取のいかなる行為も禁止し、外国の政治組織・団体が香港特別行政区内で政治活動を行うことを禁止し、香港特別行政区の政治組織・団体が外国の政治組織・団体と関係を持つことを禁止する法律を自ら制定しなければならない。
wielded:行使する
secessionism:分離独立
wary:警戒して
shelve:棚上げする

In August Macau’s government asked China’s army for help with clearing up the destruction left by Typhoon Hato, the strongest storm in 50 years. This entailed the first deployment of troops on the streets since the handover in 1999. Were they to be mobilised in Hong Kong, even in a humanitarian role, some people would worry. In Macau, the soldiers’ presence was cheered. The Communist Party’s sway over the territory’s politics predates the end of Portuguese rule. 

entailed:もたらす
sway:統治
predates:より先行する

In the 1960s the Cultural Revolution spilled over from the mainland, triggering pro-Communist riots in Macau. Similar unrest in Hong Kong was curbed by the British, but in Macau the party’s influence spread through civil society. By the time of the handover negotiations in the 1980s, China had already turned down two Portuguese efforts to give it back. Unlike Hong Kong, to which China promised the eventual introduction of “universal suffrage” in elections for the territory’s leadership, Macau received no such pledge. 

universal suffrage:普通選挙権
pledge:公約

While many in Macau appear content, there are still grumbles. Residents complain about the cost of buying a home, a shortage of social housing and the state of public transport and hospitals. Casinos create jobs with long, unsociable hours, and clog the city with tourist buses. Critics have been particularly vocal about the government’s response to Hato, in which ten people died and 200 were injured. Opposition parties hope that citizens will remember their anger at the ballot box on September 17th, when 150,000 locals will elect 14 members of the 33-seat Legislative Assembly. 

content:満足して
grumbles:不満
clog:詰まらせる
vocal:遠慮なくものを言う

The rest of the legislators are picked by labour unions and other government-approved interest groups, or appointed by the territory’s chief executive, Fernando Chui. In 2013 the opposition won less than a quarter of the vote, and less than two-thirds of that went to candidates calling for greater democracy. At an equivalent election in 2016 in Hong Kong, pro-democracy candidates won more than half of the directly elected seats. Hong Chui even picked six legislators who wanted to renegotiate the relationship with China. Do not expect such radical thoughts in Macau. 

マカオは香港と違って、中国政府に対して寛容だ。一人あたりのGDPが$73,187と世界で最も高いというせいもある。ベーシックインカムが年に1200ドル支給される。香港と違って、豊かであるということもある。今年の台風は50年来のものだったが、中国の軍隊に支援を仰いだ。そうしたことには市民は歓迎している。香港とは全く違う。

土曜日。今日は一日海野塾だ。ではまた明日。

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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

スウィングバイ株式会社
代表取締役社長

アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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