ボコ・ハラムは自爆テロに女性を利用している。 彼らは疑念を持たせないようにするために利用して来たが、それは変わっていくかもしれない。

Why Boko Haram uses female suicide-bombers
They used to arouse less suspicion, though that may be changing
Oct 23rd 2017by R.S. | LAGOS


BOKO HARAM has used more female suicide-bombers than any other terrorist group in history. Of the 434 bombers the group deployed between April 2011 and June 2017, 244 have been definitely identified as female. More may have been. The Tamil Tigers, the previous holders of the gruesome record, used 44 over a decade, according to a study by Jason Warner and Hilary Matfess for the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, an American military college. Boko Haram, whose insurgency has killed more than 30,000 in north-east Nigeria and neighbouring countries since 2011 and displaced 2.1m, is also the first group to use a majority of female bombers. 

Nigeria’s government likes to say that Boko Haram has been “technically defeated”. It split into two factions last year, after Islamic State (IS) declared a preference for a more moderate leader, Abu Musab al-Barnawi, over Abubakar Shekau. The latter’s tactics include using suicide-bombers to blow up mosques and markets, inevitably killing fellow Muslims. (Some analysts dispute the idea of factions, arguing that Boko Haram has always been made up of different cells.) The group is far from vanquished, even though it has been forced out of towns since Muhammadu Buhari, a former military dictator, reclaimed the presidency in 2015. 

vanquished:〈敵など〉を征服する, 打ち破る

In July the branch affiliated to IS killed 69 members of an oil-exploration team. Indeed the group’s suicide-bombings have been especially lethal this year, after a relative lull in 2016. During a period of just over seven weeks from June 1st they killed at least 170 people, according to Reuters, a news agency. The jihadists are sending more children to their death too: the UN has counted 83 used as human bombs this year, four times the total for 2016. Two-thirds of them were girls. 

lull:一時的な休止[途切れ], 小康状態 

The suicide-bombers sent by Boko Haram are, however, less lethal than those used by other groups, say Mr Warner and Ms Matfess. This is partly because around a fifth detonate their explosives when confronted by soldiers, killing only themselves. Yet still the group sends attackers to Maiduguri, the city where the insurgency began, to target the university, markets and camps for the displaced. It is no coincidence that its use of female bombers rose sharply after the kidnapping of the 276 “Chibok Girls” from their school in April 2014. 

lethal:死を引き起こす, 死に至る, 致命的な

Boko Haram realised the propaganda value of women: the use of supposed innocents as lethal weapons has a powerful shock factor. They arouse less suspicion (at least they did when the tactic was first deployed, if no longer) and can more easily hide bombs underneath voluminous hijab. And by sending women to blow themselves up, Boko Haram also saves its male fighters for more conventional guerrilla-style attacks.

voluminous:〈衣服が〉ゆったりした, だぶだぶの.

Some of the women may by willing, if brainwashed, jihadists. Many, though, are believed to be coerced into strapping on bombs. One did so with a baby on her back. Some may see it as a way out of an abusive life as one of Boko Haram’s “wives”, plenty of whom are raped by their “husbands”. Those who give themselves up before detonating their bombs often face a lifetime of stigma, as families and communities prove unwilling to take them back. So whether the women kill anyone or not, Boko Haram sows fear and division, exactly as it intends. 

abusive:abusive parents 虐待する親.
stigma:不名誉, 汚名, 恥辱
sows:sow doubt in his mind 彼の心に不信感を芽生えさせる.


It is now practical to refuel electric vehicles through thin air
Electromagnetic induction gets rid of cables
Oct 28th 2017


A WISE driver keeps an eye on the fuel gauge, to make timely stops at filling stations. For drivers of electric cars, though, those stations are few and far between. The infrastructure needed for refilling batteries has yet to be developed, and the technology which that infrastructure will use is still up for grabs. Most electric cars are fitted with plugs. But plugs and their associated cables and charging points bring problems. The cables are trip hazards. The charging points add to street clutter. And the copper wire involved is an invitation to thieves. Many engineers would therefore like to develop a second way of charging electric vehicles—one that is wireless and can thus be buried underground. 

grabs:A is up for grabs. (希望者なら誰でも)A〈仕事・賞・チャンスなど〉が手に入る, 入手可能である.
fitted: ≪…の≫ 付いた(out)
tripping hazard:つまずく危険
street clutter:散乱物

Electrical induction, the underlying principle behind wireless charging, was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831, and is widely used in things such as electric motors and generators. Faraday observed that moving a conductor through a magnetic field induced a current in that conductor. Subsequent investigations showed that this also works if the conductor is stationary and the magnetic field is moving. Since electric currents generate magnetic fields, and if the current alternates so does the field, an alternating current creates a field that is continuously moving. This means that running such a current through a conductor will induce a similar current in another, nearby, conductor. That induced current can then be used for whatever purpose an engineer chooses. 

current:電流(electric current)
stationary:I remained stationary from fear. 私は恐ろしくてじっとしていた

In the case of vehicle charging, the first conductor is a length of copper wire. This is coiled around a piece of ferrite (a substance made of oxides of iron and other metals) that amplifies the magnetic field generated. The whole thing is housed in a flat case to create a pad that is easily buried. When a vehicle equipped with a suitable “pickup” coil stops or parks above this device, and alternating current is fed into the pad, a similar current is induced in the pickup. This is then converted into direct current by a rectifier, and is used to top up the vehicle’s battery. The principle is thus pretty simple. But only in recent years has it become practical to use in vehicles. 

fed:feed coins into a pay phone 公衆電話にコインを入れる

Leading the recharge
For wireless charging to work, a car must necessarily be fitted with a pickup. At the moment, this is a do-it-yourself business. Evatran, a Virginian firm, for example, sells kits of pickup and pad for between $2,500 and $4,000, installation included. According to Rebecca Hough, the firm’s boss, about 11% of the input power is lost during wireless charging with Evatran’s equipment. But plugging in a cord charger, she says, involves similar losses. The absence in cord charging of the air gap involved in wireless charging means cord charging requires a special (and power-draining) transformer to protect against surges. 

air gap:《電気》空隙 すきま
aserge protector:〘電〙サージプロテクター〘電圧・電流の急増から機器を保護する装置〙.

Evatran is not alone in the DIY induction business. HEVO, a company based in New York, will install a pickup for $3,000. HEVO also wants to take charging out of the home garage, by building networks of pads in cities. These, it intends, will be reserved and rented by drivers using their mobile phones. 

If wireless charging is to become more than a bespoke curiosity, though, vehicle manufacturers will have to get involved as well. This is starting to happen. Evatran says that, next year, at least two carmakers will start fitting its pickups to their products as they are being assembled. WiTricity, a firm in Massachusetts that, like Evatran, designs both pickups and pads, has licensed its pickup design to Toyota, and also to two car-components companies, TDK of Japan and Delphi of Britain. Other carmakers, including Audi, BMW, Daimler, Ford, Jaguar, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo, are likewise expected to launch remote-charging-ready vehicles soon. 

bespoke:あつらえの, 注文作りの〈靴・服・ソフトウェアなど〉
curiosity:珍しい物[事, 人], 骨董品, 希少品

Nor are cars the only vehicles for which wireless charging beckons. Also next year, WAVE, a firm in Utah, plans to install a much more powerful version of the technology at the port of Los Angeles, for a monster vehicle (its tyres are higher than a tall man) which grabs, moves and stacks loaded containers. This will bypass one of the port’s more arcane practices since, at the moment, the International Longshore and Warehouse Union permits only electricians to plug in the cords of electric vehicles at the port, which makes operating such vehicles there remarkably expensive. 

beckons:起こりそうである ≪for≫ .
arcane:謎めいた; 不可解な.

And wireless charging is especially promising for buses, says Andrew Daga, the boss of Momentum Dynamics, a firm in Pennsylvania that sells more of its charging units for buses than for cars. A big obstacle to the uptake of electric buses is the need to take them out of service for part of the day to recharge them. If, thanks to wireless charging, such a bus can sip enough power en route to keep it chugging along until it can be given a charge overnight, it can at last, he says, compete with the diesel sort.

uptake:吸収(量), 摂取(量)(intake).
chugging:〈汽車などが〉ポッポッと音を立てる[立てて進む](away, along).

One place where this is already happening is Milton Keynes, a town north-west of London. The Line 7 route in this town is serviced by electric buses that pause for two to four minutes over charging pads at each end of the line. Both pads have four buried coils, which can transfer power at a rate of 120 kilowatts. (By comparison, Evatran’s latest single-coil charger for cars provides 7.2 kilowatts.) That is enough for the buses to remain in service for 16 hours a day. 

The equipment used in Milton Keynes, which is made by IPT Technology, a German firm, costs about £100,000 ($130,000) a pad. But the buses’ operator, eFIS, calculates that one of their vehicles costs 50 cents a kilometre less to run than a diesel one, thanks to savings on fuel and engine repair. Collectively, Line 7’s eight electric buses drive 700,000km a year. According to John Miles, eFIS’s boss, the firm expects to start servicing a second route in Milton Keynes soon, adding two more charging pads and 11 electric buses to the town’s public-transport network. Wirelessly charged buses also run in Mannheim, Germany, in Utrecht, in the Netherlands, and in the Italian cities of Genoa and Turin, as well as in Salt Lake City and the Californian cities of Lancaster, Long Beach, Monterey, Palmdale and Walnut Creek. Los Angeles is expected to join the list next year. 

A moving experience
All of these efforts, though, still depend on a vehicle stopping when it needs to recharge. In that sense, wireless charging is no different from the plug-in variety. But things do not have to be that way. For induction to work, the vehicle does not need to be stationary. The next step will be charging vehicles on the move. Preliminary trials have started. 

One such is at a 100-metre electrified test track in Versailles, near Paris. This test, run by VEDECOM, a government transport-research institute, should be finished next year, but initial results are promising. The batteries of two minivans travelling simultaneously along the track at more than 100kph can successfully absorb 20 kilowatts each. Qualcomm, the firm that makes the equipment being tested, known as Halo, says it has already licensed the technology involved to 13 car-parts firms. One market the firm thinks promising is electrifying taxi ranks. As Graeme Davison, who is in charge of marketing Halo, observes, “no taxi driver on God’s earth” will keep getting out of his cab to swap charging flexes as the queue at the rank creeps forward. 

ranks:タクシーの客待ち場所(taxi rank).
on God’s earth:全世界に,地球上に
creep:〈自動車などが〉ゆっくり進む, 徐行する

Israel is also interested in charging vehicles on the move. Shay Soffer, the chief scientist at the country’s transport ministry, has overseen the electrification of a short stretch of road in Tel Aviv, where tests will begin next year. He does not think electrifying roadways will be unworkably expensive. Oren Ezer of ElectRoad, the firm that converted the road in question, reckons a small crew, working three night shifts, could convert a kilometre of tarmac in this way. A lead vehicle would cut trenching into the existing surface and sweep up debris. A second, piled with electrical kit, would follow, with workers tucking the equipment into place in the trench as it travelled. A third would then fill the trench with fresh asphalt. 

in question:問題になっている
tucking:He tucked the note into his pocket. 彼はメモをポケットに押し込んだ.

Whether such on-the-fly charging actually will be practical is moot. But the stationary sort looks set for take-off. Though plugs in cars are unlikely to vanish, the power of induction seems here to stay. 

moot:議論の余地のある, 未決定の.



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