2017年11月30日

無所属の立候補者達がメキシコの大統領の選挙に押し寄せる。 彼らは来年の投票を更に複雑にするだろう。

Independents stampede into Mexico’s presidential election
Non-party candidates will make next year’s vote more complicated
Oct 26th 2017 | MEXICO CITY

無所属の立候補者達がメキシコの大統領の選挙に押し寄せる。
彼らは来年の投票を更に複雑にするだろう。

stampede:〈人が〉 ≪…を≫ あわてて[衝動的に]行う ≪into≫ .



THE split was years in the making. On October 6th Margarita Zavala (pictured), the former first lady of Mexico, resigned from her conservative National Action Party (PAN). She had long hoped to be its nominee for president in elections to be held next July. But the head of the party, Ricardo Anaya, has formed a “Citizens’ Front” alliance with two smaller parties, and looks set to win the group's nomination himself. So Ms Zavala has done something that was never possible before in a Mexican presidential race. She registered as an independent candidate. She was not alone: 85 other independent aspirants had signed up by the deadline on October 14th. 

in the making:作られつつある、進行中の
aspirants:大志[大望]を抱く人; 

The contest to succeed President Enrique Pena Nieto is the fourth since Mexico’s democratic era began in 2000. But it will be the first presidential race since the country began allowing candidates to seek office without the backing of a political party. That is the result of a binding ruling by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, which found that the ban infringed on the right to participate in government. Last year nine independent mayors won election. In 2015 Jaime Rodriguez Calderon (better known as “El Bronco”) ran as an independent to be governor of Nuevo Leon, Mexico’s third-richest state, and won. Now he will run for president. 

a legally binding contract on both sides:双方に対して法的拘束力を持つ契約.
Inter-American Court of Human Rights:米州人権委員会(IACHR)は、この地域で人権を擁護・促進するための米州機構(OAS)の自主的な中央機関である。労働組合運動も含めて、伝統的に差別されている人々や地域社会、グループを対象としている。
 infringed:〈権利・自由など〉を侵害する.

Mexicans’ anger at conventional politicians is helping to open the door to independents. Just 6% of Mexicans are satisfied with the way their democracy is working, the lowest level among 36 countries around the world, according to a recent survey by the Pew Research Centre. Next year they will have plenty of candidates to choose from. 

Maria de Jesus Patricio Martinez, known as “Marichuy”, will be the first indigenous Mexican to run for president since Benito Juarez in the mid-19th century. Armando Rios Piter, a technocratic senator from the southern state of Guerrero, is seen by some as a Mexican answer to Emmanuel Macron, the centrist who won France’s presidential election just a year after founding his own party. 

technocratic:技術系出身の テクノクラシー[技術家政治]の主張者.

Even Mexico’s established parties are trying to show an independent streak. The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) of Mr Pena changed its policies to allow a non-member to be the its presidential candidate. This frees the unpopular president to anoint the finance minister, Jose Antonio Meade, as the PRI’s standard-bearer. 

streak:【好ましくない性格などの】傾向, 徴候, …気味
anoint:指名する
standard-bearer:旗手、旗頭 主唱者、唱導者、首領

Not all independents who want to run will be able to. In order to receive public funding for their campaigns, they must collect signatures from 1% of the electorate—both nationwide (meaning nearly 900,000 people) and in at least 17 separate states—by February 12th. All but a few will probably fall short, says Jorge Castaneda, whose attempt to run as an independent in 2006 was blocked in the courts and led to the adoption of the current law. Candidates with support concentrated in a few regions, like Mr Rios Piter and Marichuy, will have difficulty passing the 17-state threshold. Ms Zavala, whose husband, Felipe Calderon, was president from 2006 to 2012, has the advantage of being well known across Mexico. 

public funding:公的資金
all but a few of:一部の〜を除けば
fall short:〔要求・期待・目標・水準・基準などに〕達しない

Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, a left-wing populist who is the early front-runner in presidential election, fears the independents will mainly hurt him. On October 12th he called El Bronco a Trojan horse sent by the PRI, to which Mr Rodriguez belonged until 2014. The independents, Mr Lopez Obrador explained, “are actually part of the same mafia of power” as the establishment that his party, Morena, rails against. But he is not the only candidate at risk. Ms Zavala, who is backed by 16% of voters, according to a poll published on October 15th by El Financiero, a newspaper, seems to be taking votes from Mr Anaya’s Citizens’ Front.

rail against the government:政府を厳しく非難する

Independents who do get on the ballot may be tempted to drop out and endorse a party candidate in exchange for a cabinet post. Voters wanting to back the eventual winner may rally around the two front-runners late in the race. And there is plenty of time for Ms Zavala and Mr Anaya to make peace before votes are cast. 

In an election with lots of contenders and no second round, the winner could triumph with less than 30% of the vote. Such a weak mandate would hardly equip the next administration to scale up the fight against corruption that all candidates vow to deliver. Voters may be spoilt for choice, but too much choice can be a spoiler. 

contenders:競争者
mandate:信任
spoilt:spoil everything 何もかもだめにする
spoiler:スポイラー 航空機などの翼の上面にある板状の可動装置。立てた状態にすると揚力が減少する。

メキシコの選挙が来年あるが、米州人権委員会の規定で、無党派の人が大統領の選挙に出馬できるようになった。もちろん、選挙の公的資金を得るためには事前に有権者の1%と17州の人たちから署名を貰わなければならない。それでも、今までのような党の代表だけでなく、無党派の人が立候補できるので、来年の選挙は混乱するだろう。

The first data from a repository of living human brain cells
Waste not, want not
Oct 26th 2017

生きた人間の頭脳の細胞の貯蔵所からのはじめてのデータ
無駄がなければ不足もない

repository:貯蔵[保管, 収納]所
Waste not, want not.:無駄がなければ不足もない



PROFITABLY recycling waste is always a good idea. And the Allen Institute for Brain Science, in Seattle, has found a way to recycle what is perhaps the most valuable waste of all—living human brain tissue. Understandably, few people are willing to donate parts of their brains to science while they are still alive. But, by collaborating with seven local neurosurgeons, the institute’s chief scientist, Christof Koch, and his colleagues, have managed to round up specimens of healthy tissue removed by those surgeons in order to get to unhealthy parts beyond them, which needed surgical ministration. Normally, such tissue would be disposed of as waste. Instead, Dr Koch is making good use of it. 

work more profitably:より多くの利益が出るように仕事を進める
tissue:(動植物の細胞から構成される)組織
round up:〈人々・動物たちなど〉を駆り集める; 〈散らかった物・証拠など〉を集める
specimens:collect specimens of butterflies チョウの標本を集める
ministration:奉仕、援助

The repository the cells from these samples end up in is a part of a wider project, the Allen Cell Types Database. The first data from the newly collected human brain cells were released on October 25th. The Allen database, which is open for anyone to search, thus now includes information on the shape, electrical activity and gene activity of individual human neurons. The electrical data are from 300 live neurons of various types, taken from 36 people. The shapes (see picture for example) are from 100 of these neurons. The gene-expression data come from 16,000 neurons, though those cells are post-mortem samples. 

shape:What shape is the island? その島はどんな形なの:
electrical :electrical wiring 電気配線(工事)
postmortem:検視、死体解剖

inRead invented by Teads
The human brain is the most complex object in the known universe. Because it is more complicated than animal brains in ways that (say) human livers are not more complicated than animal livers, using animal brains as analogues of human ones is never going to be satisfactory. Dr Koch’s new database may therefore help explain what is special about human brains. That will assist understanding of brain diseases and disorders. It may also shed light on one of his particular interests, the nature of consciousness. 

livers:肝臓
analogues:相似器官
consciousness:意識 思考

Not, perhaps, by coincidence, this week has also seen a boost to the Allen Institute’s finances. Although it is bankrolled to a large extent by its founder, Paul Allen, who was also a founder of Microsoft, other sources of dollars are always welcome. The American taxpayer is about to provide some, via the country’s National Institutes of Health, in the form of three five-year grants with a total value of nearly $100m—including nearly $20m to create a “multimodal atlas of human brain cell types”. Every little helps. 

bankrolled:〈事業など〉に資金援助をする(finance).
multimodal:多様な
atlas:地図帳

脳細胞がどうなっているかの研究が始まっている。人間の脳は複雑で、こうした脳の働きの研究に関して億単位のドルの投資が始まった。まだ、緒についたばかりだが、政府もそうした研究に投資をしだした。その形状、情報の流れ方、遺伝子の活動の仕方を研究している。

木曜日。ではまた明日。

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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

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アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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