2017年12月02日

ブロックチェーンはどのようにして機能するのか。そしてなぜ問題なのか?

Nov 3, 2017 | 17:44 GMT
How Blockchain Works and Why It Matters

ブロックチェーンはどのようにして機能するのか。そしてなぜ問題なのか?

A pair of physical bitcoins, but the blockchain technology that powers the currency is far more important.

Disruptive technologies such as blockchain will impact future economies and societies just as surely as industrial manufacturing did in previous centuries. Though new developments in materials, computing, automation and related technologies may not have an explicit impact on our quarterly or even our annual forecasts, their mid- to long-term implications are manifold. Much as industrialization led to global inequality, however, future technologies could actually fuel unrest in certain parts of the world, especially as markets move away from the kind of low-end manufacturing seen by many developing countries as a clear-cut way to achieve economic prosperity. 

Disruptive:〈影響(力)などが〉 【正常な機能に】混乱をもたらす
manifold:多方面にわたる.
Much as:〜と同じだけ◆【同】as much as 〜だけれども◆【同】however much
clear-cut:a clear-cut idea 明確な考え.

See Decade Forecast: 2015-2025
True digital currencies were more common in science fiction than in reality until quite recently. The big stumbling block for electronic money that doesn't have a physical form is the issue of ownership. How can you truly possess something of intrinsic value that can be effectively copied ad nauseam? In 2008, a paper published under a pseudonym, Satoshi Nakamoto, introduced the world to the digital currency bitcoin, a groundbreaking development in its own right. But more important, however, was the underlying algorithm that made the cryptocurrency work. 

intrinsic:本質・価値などが ≪…に≫ 固有の, 本来備わっている, 本質的な
nauseam:ad nauseam〈ラテン語〉嫌になるほど
pseudonym:(特に作家などの)ペンネーム
groundbreaking:革新的な
in its own right:それ自体で
cryptocurrency:暗号通貨◆暗号化技術に基づく仮想通貨

The technology that anchors bitcoin, known as the blockchain, was the truly revolutionary development. Commonly referred to as distributed ledger technology, blockchain is already considered to be a disruptive technology and will affect a number of different industries beyond the financial sector, including but not limited to shipping and logistics, aerospace and defense, retail, health care, and manufacturing. Distributed ledger technology is a truly revolutionary development. 

distributed ledger technology:分散型台帳技術

In the case of digital currencies such as bitcoin, which pioneered the technology, transactions are recorded in a shared public ledger — the ubiquitous blockchain. The currency (or contract or other exchange of information) is not controlled by a central entity like a bank but is instead managed by an online community. Members with powerful computers are encouraged to maintain the transactional register by "verifying the blockchain" — in other words, by solving complex mathematical equations and adding another "block" of transactions to the existing chain. With bitcoin, the process is known as "mining" because the verifier is rewarded with new bitcoins. 

verifier:検証者、立証者

Ultimately, the key attribute of the technology is its ability to ensure and enshrine an often undervalued commodity: trust. The only way the protocol itself can be hacked and a false transaction entered is if a group of actors control more than 50 percent of the nodes verifying the blockchain in order to collude with one another. 

enshrine:(大切なものとして)A〈法律・神話など〉に述べられている, 謳(うた)われている.
undervalued :を過小評価[軽視]する; (実際より)…を安く見積もる.
collude:共謀[結託]する 

To be quite clear, first-mover offerings such as bitcoin, Ethereum or Ripple that are popular today might easily die a quick death tomorrow. For now, the technology remains in its infancy and new applications are still being developed. There are a number of technological challenges to be surmounted as well as regulatory hurdles to overcome before potential sectors of the economy adopt this technology — or not, as the case may be. 

surmounted:surmount a lot of obstacles 多くの障害を乗り越える.

いま時代を風靡しているブロックチェーンの話題で、内容には突っ込んでいないので、この仕組はここではわからないが、著者は懐疑的に書いている。ブロックチェーンにおける2つの重要な概念は、参加メンバーが価値あるモノを交換する場となるビジネス・ネットワークと、各メンバーが所有し、メンバー間で常に内容が同期される台帳のことだ。このサイトが一番わかり易い。https://www.ibm.com/industries/jp/ja/blockchain/what_is_blockchain.html

日曜日。今日は母の見舞い。ではまた明日。

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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

スウィングバイ株式会社
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アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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