2017年12月09日

ハンガリーのヨッビク党は過激的ではないようにしようとしている。 そして議会では第二の党になるかもしれない。

Hungary’s Jobbik party tries to sound less extreme
And may end up the second-biggest in parliament
Nov 15th 2017 | BUDAPEST

ハンガリーのヨッビク党は過激的ではないようにしようとしている。
そして議会では第二の党になるかもしれない。

Jobbik party:ヨッビク-より良いハンガリーのための運動、通称ヨッビクは、ハンガリーの極右政党である。 リーダー: Gabor Vona 設立者: Gabor Vona、 David Kovacs、 Gergely Pongratz
設立: 2003年10月24日 ナショナリズム、 急進主義、 右翼ポピュリズム、 欧州懐疑主義


AS A firebrand leader of Hungary’s nationalist Jobbik party, Gabor Vona once railed against “Gypsy crime” and “Israeli conquerors”. He even attended parliament in the outfit of the Magyar Garda, Jobbik’s now disbanded and, to many, deeply sinister, uniformed wing. 

firebrand:扇動家
railed:激しく批判する
conquerors:征服者
outfit:組織
disbanded:解散した
sinister:不吉な

But as Hungary starts to gear up for an election due by next April, Mr Vona and Jobbik claim to have mellowed. They now declare that they want to move beyond the old left-right divide and instead try to build social consensus. “Our goal is to get the support of all constructive forces who want to build rather than destroy,” says the new Mr Vona. The state and business leaders should work together to boost wages and the economy. There is no room for anti-Semitism or racism against Roma people, he says—although not all party supporters are likely to stick to that. Mr Vona even sent Hanukkah greetings last year to a Budapest rabbi. 

mellowed:和らげた
anti-Semitism:反ユダヤ主義
Roma people:〔自称で,人間の意。ジプシーと呼ばれてきた〕
ヨーロッパを主に,各地に散在している少数民族。原住地はインド北西部とされる。数家族から十数家族で移動生活を送ってきたが,現在ではその多くが定住。ロマーニー語を話し,音楽をはじめ,独自の文化をもつ。ナチスによる絶滅政策など,各地で厳しい迫害を受けてきた歴史をもつ。
Hanukkah:〘ユダヤ教〙ハヌカー〘エルサレム神殿奪回を記念する宮清めの祭り〙.

Mr Vona, 39, is following the example of Marine Le Pen, the leader of France’s National Front, reckons Tamas Boros, of Policy Solutions, a Budapest think-tank. “Jobbik have copy-pasted the [National Front].” 

Jobbik won 21% of the vote in an election in 2014, making it the third-largest party in parliament. Its critics describe the party as neo-Nazi, though Jobbik’s ideological underpinning was always extreme Hungarian nationalism, rather than any form of admiration for Hitler. But that too has a limited market. 



Jobbik’s leaders have since then realised that Hungarian society is not generally radical, says Mr Boros. “Most people are much more interested in financial matters, such as their wages and the economy.” The party is now promoting a hazily defined EU-wide campaign to equalise pay rates across the continent and stem the mass exodus of young people to western Europe. 

hazily :〈天候・空などが〉もやのかかった, かすんだ.
stem:阻止する

But not everyone manages to stay on message. Dora Duro, a Jobbik MP, recently said that the party would welcome homosexuals’ votes if they felt the party represented their interests—but later called for Budapest’s Gay Pride parade, and gay and lesbian civil partnerships, to be banned. Laszlo Toroczkai, one of the party’s most hard-line radicals, remains its vice-president. As a village mayor, he passed by-laws against Muslim dress and public displays of gay affection, and during the refugee crisis of 2015-16 warned migrants to stay away. 

by-laws :規則
affection:愛情

Officials from the governing Fidesz party dismiss Jobbik’s new line as posturing. “They are desperate. They have sold everything in the house and now it’s empty,” says one, pointing to a lack of concrete new policies on the part of Jobbik. Mr Vona will have a tough task convincing many voters that the party’s transformation is real. 

dismiss:退ける
posturing:態度
desperate:自暴自棄

But there may indeed be a gap in the market. Hungary lacks a small-state conservative party; and many voters think the incessant campaign of Viktor Orban, the prime minister, against George Soros, a Hungarian-born philanthropist and financier, is batty. Mr Orban claims that Mr Soros plans to swamp Hungary with migrants with the backing of the EU. (How he might actually do this is unclear, and Mr Soros strongly denies having any such plan.) Hungary’s government engages in “pointless conflicts”, says Geza Jeszensky, a former foreign minister and ambassador. Tibor Navracsics, a former Minister of Justice under Mr Orban, who is now European Commissioner for Education, Youth, Culture and Sport, has gone on record to deny that there is any migration plan at the European Commission, much to the rage of his former colleagues. 

incessant:絶え間のない
batty:常軌を逸した.
swamp :あふれる
gone on record:公言する

Yet, however Jobbik evolves, Mr Orban has some wind in his sails. The opposition is fragmented and demoralised. Helped by EU funds, the economy is in good shape, growing at a rate of 3.2% year-on-year. Although far too many Hungarians are still poor, a burgeoning middle class has pushed consumption up sharply. The government’s relentless message that Hungary is under threat from external enemies shores up the base of Fidesz. Support for the ruling party is at its highest since January 2011, at 40%, according to Median, a pollster. Jobbik scores only 11%, and the Socialists are languishing at 7%. The only question, says Mr Boros, is who will come second next year. It may well be the new-look Jobbik. 

demoralised:士気をくじく
burgeoning:急増する
shorw up:支える
languishing:弱くなる

ハンガリーの極右翼だったヨッビク党が第二の党になりそうだが、彼等は方針を変更して、よりソフトになってきている。急激に増加している中間所得層が経済を支えているが、党は景気の高揚を意識している。経済も順調で3.2%の成長が見込める。それもEUからの支援があるからだ。オルバンは相変わらず、移民に大反対であるが、彼の政党は第一党で揺るがないだろう。

日曜日。今夜は北海道の佐藤さんと会食だ。ではまた明日。



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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

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アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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