2017年12月29日

ユーゴスラビアの戦争犯罪裁判所がやりとげたこと 24年間にわたり、161の起訴を以て今月、その幕を閉じた。

What the Yugoslav war-crimes tribunal achieved
It closes this month after 24 years and 161 indictments
Dec 7th 2017by T.J.

ユーゴスラビアの戦争犯罪裁判所がやりとげたこと
24年間にわたり、161の起訴を以て今月、その幕を閉じた。

Yugoslav:ユーゴスラビア(人)の.
tribunal:裁判所



THE International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), which was established by the United Nations Security Council in 1993, closes at the end of this month. A few remaining appeals and retrials will become the responsibility of the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals, which performs the same role with the now-closed Rwandan tribunal. 

この裁判の他に、ルワンダ国際戦犯法廷、カンボジア特別法廷、シエラレオネ特別法廷がある。

The ramifications of the ICTY’s work extend far beyond the region. It was the first such court to prosecute war crimes since the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials at the end of the second world war. It indicted 161 people, including former presidents and prime ministers. All were caught, handed themselves in, or died. Ninety were convicted. Nineteen were acquitted. None is a fugitive. The court heard evidence from more than 4,650 witnesses in cases relating to genocide, ethnic cleansing, mass murder and sexual violence. 

ICTY:International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia 


ramifications:結果
hand oneself into the police:自首する.
acquitted:【容疑について】無罪を宣告される
fugitive:(危険・公権力などから)逃げた, 逃亡中の

Once a relatively liberal communist country, Yugoslavia disintegrated in the 1990s. It was a federation of six republics and two autonomous provinces—and a mish-mash of nationalities. Many regional leaders transmogrified into nationalists and war took hold. If Croatia was going to become independent then many of its Serb inhabitants would fight to remain in a Greater Serbian state. And Croat nationalists wanted a Greater Croatia that included Croat-inhabited parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina. And so on. As the Bosnian war ground on and Serb forces besieged Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital, foreign powers could not agree how to respond. 

disintegrated:崩壊する
mish-mash:ごたまぜ, 寄せ集め
nationalities:国民; 国家; (一国家内の)民族, 部族, 種族
transmogrified:(魔法などで)〈人〉を化けさせる[変える](transform).
take hold:〔手で〕握る、つかむ 根付く、根を下ろす、くっつく、物になる、開花する
Greater Serbian state:The Greater Serbian ideology includes claims to territories in modern-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and the Republic of Macedonia. In some historical forms, Greater Serbian aspirations also include parts of Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. Its inspiration comes from the memory and existence of the relatively large and powerful Serbian Empire that existed in 14th century Southeast Europe prior to the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.
Bosnian war :ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ紛争は、ユーゴスラビアから独立したボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナで1992年から1995年まで続いた内戦。単にボスニア紛争とも呼ばれる。

No one wanted to send troops to separate the parties. But they all approved the prosecution of war criminals, so backed the establishment of the tribunal. At first the court, based in The Hague, had little money. It also had no police of its own to arrest anyone indicted. But over the years its influence increased. It demanded that the Balkan states and others carry out arrests, and also got help from NATO-led peacekeepers in Bosnia. It succeeded in making the handing over of those indicted a political issue, with sanctions slapped on Serbia and Croatia when they dragged their feet. 

Balkan states:バルカン(半島)諸国◆通常、セルビア、モンテネグロ、アルバニア、マケドニア、クロアチア、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ、ブルガリア、コソボ、トルコのヨーロッパ側が含まれるが、スロベニアとルーマニアを含める場合がある。
succeeded:succeed in persuading him 彼の説得に成功する[彼をうまく説得する]
dragged:Mary was dragging her feet (behind her). メリーは足を引きずっていた.

Some of its achievements were legal and some political. Several of the most evil of the wartime actors were imprisoned. The tribunal gave victims and civilians a voice, and often justice, in a way that would not otherwise have been possible. It created new legal precedents. Sexual violence is now considered a war crime. It established the groundwork for other courts, including those that looked into horrors committed in Rwanda and Sierra Leone, and the International Criminal Court (ICC). Its 2.5m pages of transcripts provide an extraordinary archive. 

give someone a voice:(人)に発言権を与える
justice:主張などの正当性、妥当性
groundwork:lay the groundwork for success 成功への基礎を築く.
archive:公文書.

It established that genocide had taken place when some 8,000 Bosniaks (Muslims) were murdered as Srebrenica fell. To weigh against all this there must be the acknowledgment that many believe that justice was not always done. The hopes that many had for the tribunal have at times been disappointed. It did not accelerate the process of reconciliation. Many believe there was interference, from America and elsewhere, in its work. In cases related to Kosovar Albanians, in particular, prosecutors alleged witness-tampering. 

Bosniaks:a native or inhabitant of the Balkan country Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially one who is a Muslim
Srebrenica:スレブレニツァ◆ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ(Bosnia and Herzegovina)の重要な街。近郊に豊富な銀・鉛の鉱山
weigh ~ against:〜と…をてんびんにかける、〜を…と比較検討[考察]する
reconciliation:和解, 調停, 和議, 和平, 仲直り
interference:干渉, 口出し; 妨害; 衝突; 干渉行為
Kosovar:relating to or characteristic of the autonomous region of Kosovo in the Balkans
tampering:〈機械・文書など〉を勝手に変える[いじる]; 不正に書き換える; に不正に干渉する; 買収する

According to Eric Gordy, a sociologist at University College London’s School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the court tried to end impunity for war crimes and in this “it was partially successful”. It was founded at a time when there was still some consensus about the need for this. Now, sadly, that is no longer the case. There is no international tribunal indicting anyone for war crimes in Syria. Russia and America are among those countries that have either withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the ICC or never ratified its statute. It remains to be seen whether the Yugoslav tribunal will become a relic from a more hopeful time or a trailblazer in a cause that was always bound to suffer setbacks. 

Slavonic:スラヴ民族[人]の
impunity:免責, 刑罰を受けないで済むこと
jurisdiction:司法権, 裁判権; 管轄権; 支配(権); 権力
statute:法規, 法令; 制定法
relic:(過去の)遺物, 遺品; 遺跡; (過去の習慣・信仰などの)名残, 遺風
trailblazer:(事業などの)開拓者, 草分け.
setbacks:suffer a major [serious] setback 大きな痛手を被る.

旧ユーゴスラビア国際戦犯法廷が1993年から始まってようやく、終結することになった。ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ紛争での大虐殺、民族浄化、強姦の裁判だ。こうした国際法廷に対してロシアやアメリカは関心を持っていない。シリアの戦争犯罪は誰も裁こうとしない。ルワンダ国際戦犯法廷、カンボジア特別法廷、シエラレオネ特別法廷があるが、ロヒンギャのミャンマーの件はどうなるのだろうか。

Ivanka Trump’s brand repositions at home, soars in Asia
This week the fashion and jewellery label opens its first bricks-and-mortar, standalone store
Dec 13th 2017 | NEW YORK

Ivanka Trumpのブランドはアメリカでは見直されているが、アジアでは急上昇している。
今週、彼女のファッションと宝石のブランドで、はじめて実店舗として単独のお店がオープンする

repositions:〜を別の場所に移す、〜を再配置する


LAUREN, a Democrat from Maryland, makes an impassioned case for not shopping at Ivanka Trump, the business founded by Donald Trump’s daughter. First comes a predictable argument; she abhors supporting any brand that uses the Trump name. Second, the sparkly sandals she bought back when Ms Trump was a tabloid celebrity, not an adviser to the president, fell apart within a year. Shoppers will soon be able to take such complaints directly to sales staff: the brand is about to open its first standalone store, in Trump Tower in New York. 

impassioned:熱のこもった, 熱情的な〈演説・嘆願など
abhors:(特に道義的理由で)〈事・人〉を嫌悪[憎悪]する
sparkly:shining with glittering flashes of light
fell apart:(古さ・ずさんな作りのために)〈物が〉ばらばらになる[壊れる]

Floral frocks, stilettoes and bangles aimed at the mid-market customer do not often inspire strong reactions, but Ms Trump’s fashion line is divisive. Though Ms Trump distanced herself from her company in January, she owns it and receives money through a trust. Some consumers are boycotting it. Others have purged their wardrobes of items they already own. Thredup, a second-hand fashion site, says users listed double the number of Ivanka items for sale in the first five months of 2017 than in the same period last year. But lots of Trump fans have also spent to express their support. 

Floral frock:花柄のワンピース
stilettoes:ピンヒールの靴
bangles:腕輪, 足首飾り.
midmarket:ミッドマーケット◆中堅企業向け市場
divisive:(人の間に)対立[不和]を生む(ような), 意見の不一致を起こす.
trust:受託者, 受託団体[機関]〘財産・金銭の委託を受け, 慈善事業などを行う〙
purged:不要な物を除去する
wardrobes:one's summer [winter] wardrobe 夏物[冬物]衣料.

Ms Trump started her firm in 2007 as a diamond-jewellery boutique selling $50,000 products. But competing with established designers proved difficult. The company rebranded, capitalising on the popularity of a book, “Lean In”, by Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook, with a new campaign: #WomenWhoWork. 

capitalizing:を利用する

Using feminism to sell $100 office frocks worked well. In 2015 the company’s clothing line alone reportedly generated $100m. Abigail Klem, who became chief executive in January, said that in 2016 sales rose by 21%. Ms Trump’s visibility during the campaign helped. 

feminism:男女同権と性差別のない社会をめざし,女性の社会的・政治的・経済的地位の向上と性差別の払拭(ふつしよく)を主張する論

But in February Nordstrom, a department store, dropped the fashion line and Neiman Marcus, another upmarket retailer, stopped selling her jewellery. Both cited declining sales. The brand has edged downmarket. Its biggest retailers are Lord & Taylor, Zappos, Macy’s and Walmart. According to Edited, an analytics firm, 84% of Ivanka Trump footwear is discounted, by an average of 55%. 

downmarket:〈主に英〉大衆市場[低所得層]向けの
edged :物・人を少しずつ動かす; 変動させる
footwear:履き物〘靴・サンダル・スリッパ・靴下・ストッキングなど〙

Ms Klem has said the company now wants to build an identity separate from Ms Trump. The new store’s location will not help. Asian consumers, moreover, appreciate the bond between Ms Trump and her brand. Its profile has risen sharply in line with hers. A popular Japanese shopping site, Waja, started selling dresses from the Ivanka Trump fashion label in 2012. It sold nearly 30 times as many Ivanka products in November 2016 as it did in the same month of the previous year. The label now outranks Kate Spade and Calvin Klein on the website. 

bond:緊密な関係, 結束, 結合, きずな
profile:raise the profile of our town 私たちの町のイメージを向上させる
outranks:(同じ会社・組織の中で)…より高い地位[役職]にある.


In China the line is so coveted that fake Ivanka merchandise has flooded the market, and the brand has registered at least 16 trademarks there. Three of them were granted on the same day Ms Trump joined her father and Xi Jinping, China’s president, for a steak dinner at Mar-a-Lago. Abroad, if not at home, Ms Trump’s style may turn into a wardrobe staple. 

coveted:誰もがあこがれる[欲しがる], 垂涎(すいぜん)の〈職・賞など〉.
staple:定番

イヴァンカの衣料企業はなんだかんだ言われても、1億ドルの売上があり、2016年には21%も売上が伸びている。ただ、彼女の会社の履物類の84%は値引きされていて、平均で、55%引きで売られている。アジアでは好調で、日本のWajaでは昨年同月よりも30倍も売れている。中国でも人気がある。

土曜日。いよいよ今年も終わりだ。遅ればせながらやっと10冊目の本が完了した。ではまた明日。

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海野 恵一
1948年1月14日生

学歴:東京大学経済学部卒業

スウィングバイ株式会社
代表取締役社長

アクセンチュア株式会社代表取締役(2001-2002)
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